Birds-Eye View ;)Often we can learn lessons from history that influence our present and future.
The following is a somewhat eclectic history of the world that shows the investigative labours of an ex-Catholic Northern Ireland Armchair Politician, in his journey to understand his position in the world. We begin chronologically with two radiometric dates for the years 9000BC and 4000BC and continue with historical events leading up to the present day. We flit between Ulster, Ireland, Britain, Europe and the wider world-context whilst all the while tracing the history of Anabaptist sects frequently suffering execution for their belief. Very few references are given but often phrases in quotation marks can be used for Internet research.

PRE-HISTORY
9000-4000 (determined by radiometric dating – dates therefore highly speculative).
9000 BC     Earliest occupants in Ireland and Scotland (Picts/Cruthin/no-one knows) – Fisherfolk – lived near water
(This is the middle stone age) – Mesolithic

4000 BC    Neolithic communities emerge in Ulster (20,000 stone axes found to date) generally later than most of Europe. Later in this time Megalithic construction begins and develops – traced back to Mediterranean – 1000’s of these constructions remain – 300 known court cairns all in the Northern part of the Island – Passage tombs in the Boyne Valley and Sligo

4450 BC – The whole island was inhabited at this stage. – Farmers – VARIOUS WAVES OF ARCHITECTURAL INNOVATION – REASON UNKNOWN – INFLUENCE IS OBVIOUS IN THAT MOST NEW STRUCTURES EXIST ELSEWHERE IN EUROPE.
Similarities with Scotland at this time suggest common heritage.
The Mesolithic 9000BC communities certainly arrived in the North Antrim area first. The earliest evidence we have is in Coleraine. By this time (Neolithic) people are everywhere.

SECULAR HISTORY BEGINS
3000    Development of writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt 100’s signs.
Humans inhabit Estonia and Afghanistan.

2500 Chinese writing symbols used which reflect biblical narratives of Genesis 1-6
God = Spoken/Revelation
Beginning = Two/people
Forbidden = two trees/command
Desire = two trees/woman
Large Ship = eight/person/boat
Devil = secret/man/garden/life
Tempter = Devil/trees/cover
Garden = dust/breath/two.persons/enclosure
Create = speak/walk/life/dust

2256-2205     Chinese Emperor Shun sacrifices to ‘The Heavenly Ruler’ (ShangDi). ‘The Shun Canon’. ‘The border sacrifice’ ceremony to ShangDi (sometimes pronounced Zhan-dai [similar to Hebrew Shaddai]). This shows startling similarity bet ShangDi and the creator God of Genesis.

2250    ‘Ebla Tablets’ 15,000 tablets written in cuneiform Semitic language. (lost city of Ebla Discovered in 1964 – previously only known from Egyptian and Akkadian inscriptions.).  Details of cultural political and economic life dovetail with the Old Testament in many ways.

2000-1700 BC    Patriarchal period – Abraham, Issac and Jacob

1700 BC    Canaanites develop 30 symbol alphabet
‘Sinai Inscriptions’ – 1700-1200

1600-1350BC     The ‘Nuzi tablets’ written (near Kirkuk in modern Iraq). These detail many customs mentioned for this period in Patriarchal period of OT. Site had been inhabited for at least 1000 years previous to this date. (discovered 1925)

1640s Joseph goes down to Egypt

1690 BC Israelite slavery in Egypt.

1350     ‘Nuzi Tablets’ end date

1300 BC    Proposed date of Legend of the Milesian conquest of Ireland (from Spain) (Possibly by Phoenicians fleeing Mil in modern Turkey)

1305-1290 Pharaoh Seti the opressor

1290-1224 Phaoaoh Rameses II ascension to throne and reign

1290 – 1250 BC   Exodus of the Hebrews (‘Sinai inscriptions’) Moses receives the Law and writes Pentateuch.  (Gen 5:1)

1250 BC    Jericho falls to Joshua. Excavations between 1867 and 1990 confirm many details.

1250 BC    Israel in Palestine

1220 BC    ‘Merneptah Stele’ ‘Israel is laid waste, her seed is not’. First recorded mention of Israel as a nation.

1190BC    Mahabharata war in India fought in or about this year and the Hindu scriptures are allegedly written down for the first time, at this time, though the oldest manuscript in existence today is dated in the 1200sAD.

1000-587 BC        Monarchy in Israel

820-840 – ‘The Moabite Stone’ mentions ‘king of Israel’ and ‘house of David’; also the ‘Tel Dan Stela’ has same phrases.
841 – Shalmaneser III records his taking tribute from Jehu of the house of Omri on his famous ‘Black Obelisk’ (British Museum)
784-783 – ‘Samaria Ostraca’ identify Clans of Manassah
744-727 – Annals of Tiglath-Pileser III corroborate accounts of Menahem, Pekah, Hoshea,, Uzziah, and Ahaz of Judah.
721-705 – Annals of King Sargon corroborate accounts of King Omri.
701 –     Sennacherib’s attack on Lachish depicted in palace frieze (British Museum), the tribute paid him by Hezekiah is detailed on the ‘Taylor Prism’, ‘Bull inscription’ and ‘Nineveh slab’,
See also the ‘Siloam inscription’ in Hezekiah’s tunnel
(discovered 1880)
668–663 – ‘Rassam Cylinder’ (Manassah)
605-562 – Ration documents of Nebuchadnezzar mention Jehoiachin
621 – Book of the Law rediscovered by Josiah.
600 –     Oldest surviving OT text ‘silver scroll’ (Num 6:24-26)
Also ‘Neo-Babylonian Chronicle’ confirms invasion of Israel
587-588 ‘Lachish Letters’ and ‘Gedaliah Seal’ strongly supplement the book of Jeremiah.

580 BC    Ireland first mentioned in writing by Periplous of Himilco

550 BC    Canon of the Former Prophets – after the exile
Confucius (551-479) also mentions ShangDi! (2256BC)

500 BC    Sun Tzu murders two concubines of the Chinese Emperor Woo in cold blood convincing the Imperial Highness of Mr Tzu’s incredible capacity to strategically and brutally kill innocent civilians to achieve military goals. He goes on to successfully invade and defeat the neighbouring kingdom of Chu and writes ‘The Art of War’, a book which has become a standard text among military strategists and made Mr Tzu a role model for many modern militarists.

‘Cyrus Cylinder’ confirms Ezra 4:1-4 decree permitting free worship.

The area that is present-day Afghanistan (and indeed Iraq) was ruled by the Persians under Darius the Great (ca. 500 B.C.) (Ezra 4:5) . Bactriana, with its capital at Bactria (which later became Balkh), was reputedly the home of Zoroaster, who founded the religion that bears his name.

500 C – 939 AD Vietnam was a part of the Unified Chinese Empire Dynasties of Qin, Han and then Cochin. During the 1400 years under Chinese rule there were attempted revolts.

483 BC    Prince Siddhartha of the Guatama clan dies ‘free from suffering’ and is subsequently given the name Budda.

At some point in the century that follows more of the Hindu Vedas are allegedly written down.

450 BC    Canon of the Latter Prophets by Ezra – after Malachi

350 BC    Aristotle writes of Ireland that it was discovered by the Phoenicians.

334 BC    Alexander of Macedonia invades and begins conquest of Persian Empire
It took Alexander the Great only three years (from about 330-327 B.C.) to subdue the area that is now Afghanistan

250 BC     The Parthians (Acts 2), a nomadic people speaking Indo-European languages, established control in most of what is Iran

200-300BC     OT translated into Greek in Alexandria. (Septuagint)

200 BC    Continentally designed swords found in Ulster signifying start of Celtic military influence in Ulster Pict territory.
Black Pig’s Dyke (worm ditch) built across the North from Bundoran to Louth.
Navan Fort built in Meath and the Dorsey built at same time at Easterly end of the BPD
Unclear if builders were Celts or Picts but signifies division of Island
The oldest Celtic legends from 11 + 12 C copies of documents perhaps going back to 8 + 9 C (700 on) state unanimously that when the ancestors of the Celts (the Tuath de Danaan) arrived they displaced a people called the ‘Fir Bolgs’. They were subsequently under frequent attack from another race and so on and so forth…
As Archaeological evidence suggest men of differing technology lived here for about 9000 years (approx) before the Celts it seems feasible to assume the Celts who invaded Ireland sometime in the two or three hundred years before Christ were relative new comers.

200 BC    ‘Jeremiah seal’ has Jer 48:11 on it.

211 BC approximately according to “the four Masters” describes the turbulent 70 year reign of one King Rudhraigh

“Annal M4981

M4981.0

The Age of the World, 4981.

M4981.1

Rudhraighe, son of Sithrighe, son of Dubh, son of Fomhor, son of Airgeatmar, after having been seventy years in the sovereignty of Ireland, died at Airgeat Gleann. It was by this Rudghraighe that these battles were won throughout Ireland: the battle of Cuirce; the battle of Luachair; seven battles in Cliu; the battle of Gleannamhnach; the battle of Sliabh Mis; the battle of Boirinn; the battle of Ren; the battle of Ai; the battle of Cuil Silinne; the two battles of Fortrasc.”

These were times of many wars in Ireland.

150 BC – 250 AD the Kushans (a subgroup of the tribe called the Yuezhi by the Chinese)–entered Afghanistan and established an empire lasting almost four centuries.

100 BC     legendary ‘Beli Mawr’ – Celtic king in England

Dead Sea scrolls written

63 BC    The Roman Senate in the year 63 BC ordered all boy babies born to be killed who had been born in that year because prophetic dreams and astrological signs suggested that a “King of the Romans” was to be born. The senate considered a king to be diametrically opposed to their political system. –
(Julius Marathus, friend of Augustus Caesar)

60 BC     Lud son of Beli

58BC–51BC    Romans fight the Celtic ‘Gallic Wars’ in Europe

ROMANO/CELTIC BRITIAN
55 BC Caswallon (roman Cassivelaunos) Alleged son of Beli – High King of the Britons in the Home Counties at the time of Roman conquest.

55 BC – 43 AD Various Celtic kings rule areas friendly or not with Rome until Claudius invades Britain in 43

40 BC    Herod (the great) is made ‘King of the Jews’ by the Roman Senate

37 BC Herod officially begins his Reign in Judea.
Three years after receiving the honory title by the Romans, Herod and the Romans finally capture Jerusalem and execute Antigonus (nephew of the Maccabean rebel John Hyrcanus). Herod at this time took the role as sole ruler of Israel and the title of basileus (Greek for king) for himself. Josephus reports this as being in the year of the consulship of Agrippa and Gallus (37 BC) and also states that Herod died 37 years later.

30 BC    Rome’s rule over Egypt officially began with the arrival of Octavian (later called Augustus) in 30 B.C., following his defeat of Marc Antony and Cleopatra in the battle at Actium.

3 BC    Decree goes out from Caesar Augustus in 3 BC to have the Roman world call him ‘the Father of all people’ in preparation of Augustus’ silver jubilee in February of 2 BC.
(see 48 and 104AD for examples of Roman census’ where people were commanded to return to their hometowns)

3 BC    (1609    Johannes Kepler’s book ‘Astronomia Nova’ details the calculations necessary to trace in reverse the exact path of the stars which makes possible the information on positions of stars and planets detailed henceforth in this document.)

September 11th 3 BC – Jupiter (The King Planet) joins Regulus (King Star in Leo) inside the Constellation Leo (King Constellation)
KING! KING! KING!
This was seen from Babylon rising in the East.
Interestingly the planet Jupiter actually traced a circle around the top of Regulus in a crowning fashion through ‘retrograde motion’!
At the same time there was a new moon in Leo too!
There’s more.
This happened just to the East of the beginning (zero degree) of the 360-degree zodiac line indicating the start of a new era.
This was the Jewish New Year’s Day when the floodwaters had been observed by Noah to have receded from the earth.
Following Jupiter in the Constellation Virgo was the Sun, which was
Placed at the feet of Virgo.
These events happened between 11.16pm and 12.49am GMT.

2 BC    [9 MONTHS LATER!] June 17, Jupiter and Venus are seen to be touching (again seen from Babylon).. Royal planet and Mother planet, just touching (seen up close with modern software as just touching).
Again this was seen from Babylon.
Seen with the naked eye this would have appeared to be the brightest star in the sky.

5 months later Jupiter could be seen again from Jerusalem due south in the direction of Bethlehem.
Amazingly Jupiter stops through retrograde motion on this occasion on
The 25th December 2 BC.

Dec 2BC – Jan 1BC     Escape to Egypt/Slaughter of the innocents

1 BC        Jan 10th – lunar eclipse mentioned by Josephus as preceeding the death
of Herod.

Jan 10th – April     Death of Herod

April – June        Likely return of Jesus family to Nazareth

Summer and Autumn – Lost ‘War of Varus’ can now be corrected identified in this year.

10 AD Ireland firmly involved on international politics. “The Four Masters”

“Annal M10

M10.0

The Age of Christ, 10.

M10.1

The first year of the reign of Cairbre Cinncait, after he had killed the nobility, except a few who escaped from the massacre in which the nobles were murdered by the Aitheach Tuatha. These are the three nobles who escaped from them at that time: Fearadhach Finnfeachtnach, from whom are sprung all race of Conn of the Hundred Battles; Tibraide Tireach, from whom are the Dal Araidhe; and Corb Olum, from whom are the kings of the Eoghanachts, in Munster. And as to these, it was in their mothers’ wombs they escaped. Baine, daughter of the king of Alba, was the mother of Fearadhach Finnfeachtnach; Cruife, daughter of the king of Britain, was the mother of Corb Olum; and Aine, daughter of the king of Saxony, was the mother of Tibraide Tireach.”

26 AD Pontius Pilate becomes Governor of Judea (rules until 36AD)

27 AD Earliest date for the beginning of the ministry of John the Baptist

30-33 AD     Jesus states that Moses wrote the Torah.

33 AD Death of Christ

34 AD Conversion of Paul

37 AD Paul Confers with Peter and James confirming that the gospel he recieved from Jesus was the same as the one they had recieved. This places the formulation of the gospel message being  ‘the death, burial and resurrection’ only a year or so after the death of Jesus.

43 AD Claudius invades Britain

44 AD Apostle James beheaded

48 AD      Roman Census records return of the people to their native land. It reads as follows:
“I Thermoutharion along with Apollonius, my guardian, pledge an oath to Tiberius Claudius Caesar that the preceding document gives an accurate account of those returning, who live in my household, and that there is no one else living with me, neither a foreigner, nor an Alexandrian, nor a freedman, nor a Roman citizen, nor an Egyptian. If I am telling the truth, may it be well with me, but if falsely, the reverse. In the ninth year of the reign of Tiberius Claudius Augustus Germanicus Emperor.”

49 AD Paul confers with John in Jerusalem

55-60    Paul writes Galatians

63 AD Joseph of Arimathea allegedly arrives in Britain and is given land in Glastonbury by local King Arviragus

60-64    Paul writes to Colossians from Rome
65-67    Paul writes to Timothy

70    In this year the Romans obliterate the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem and also sack the entire city using the Roman army led by Titus Flavius. The estimated death toll is 600,000 to 1,300,000 Jews

96 Book of Revelation

Tacitus mentions in his “Germania” a tribe called Aesti, who live to the North and East of all the Germanic tribes. Tacitus says a lot of nice things about the Aesti!

104 AD    Roman census in Egypt requires absentees to return to their hometowns to be registered.
Gaius Vivius Maximus, Prefect of Egypt, decrees: seeing that the time has come for the house to house census, it is necessary to compel all those who for any cause whatsoever are residing out of their provinces to return to their own homes, that they may both carry out the regular order of the census and may attend diligently to the cultivation of their allotments.

122        The beginning of Hadrian’s Wall. Wooden wall completed in 20 weeks. Stone Wall completed by 128 AD

126 AD    Dionysius Alexandrinus,* of whom it is stated (from his 5th book on Baptism) that he wrote to Sixtus, the bishop at Rome, as follows
“There was with us a brother who had been a believer a long time, before ever I or my predecessor Heraclas was ordained bishop. Being present among those who were baptized, and hearing the questions put to them, and their replies, he came to me weeping, fell down at my feet, and began to confess that he had received baptism from the heretics in an entirely different manner, which baptism, since he saw that we administered baptism differently…
(From the above it is evident,… that baptism was administered after previous examination), because it is said, “Being present among those who were baptized, and hearing the questions put to them, and their replies;” (which agrees with the manner in which Philip proceeded with the Ethiopian, before he baptized him: the one asked, the other answered, and then followed baptism. Acts 8:36-38.)

135     The victory in Bar Kokhba’s revolt by Hadrian resulted in 580,000 Jews killed (according to Cassius Dio) and destabilization of the region’s Jewish population. The Romans renamed the new territory Syria Palaestina to complete the disassociation with Judaea

140 AD    Justinus, who was surnamed Philosophus, because before his conversion, he was instructed in philosophy “As many, then, as are convinced, and believe that what we teach and say is true, and promise to live ‘accordingly, to the best of their ability, are admonished to pray, and to ask God, with fasting, for the forgiveness of past sins, we ourselves praying and fasting with them. After that, we lead them to the water, and they are then born again in the same manner of regeneration in which we ourselves were born again, for then they are washed with water, in the name of God, who is the Father and Lord of us all, and of Jesus Christ, who is the Saviour of us all, and of the Holy Ghost; for Christ says: ‘Except ye be born again, ye cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven.'”

150 AD (approx)    Ptolemy makes map of the world.

Canon of Ptolemy – Rulers of Babylon, Greece and Rome
747 BC is year given for Babylon

166 AD Polycarp (Disciple of Apostle John) is Martyred.

193 AD Albinus becomes rebel Emperor of Britain

197     Serverus gets it back – two provinces – York + London

204 AD    This is the time in which, it is stated, the celebrated Tertullian flourished, who, seeing that baptism was administered to the catechumens (learners) too soon, inasmuch as some began to baptize them while they were yet children, wrote, in order to prevent this, as follows, “It is more expedient to defer baptism, according to the condition, circumstances, and age of each particular individual, than to precipitate it. Again, “It is true, the Lord says: ‘Forbid them not to come unto me.’ Let them come, then, when they increase in years; let them come, when they learn and are taught whereto they come; that they may become Christians; when they can know Christ. Why hasten ye the innocent youths to the forgiveness of sins? We should exercise more prudence in temporal matters, than to entrust with divine things those to whom we do not entrust earthly; that they may know to desire salvation, in order that it may appear that it was given to him, who desired it.”

220–330     During the Byzantine Period, the Jewish population in the north of Israel remained large for several centuries, particularly in Eastern Galilee. Western Galilee later began to take on a more Christian character ie. Syro-Arameans, Greeks and Romans from the 5th century onward. The coastal plain, central Judea and Southern Samaria had already become largely Pagan. Southern Judea remained mostly Jewish for some centuries and Northern Samaria remained Samaritan until the later stages the first period of Islamic imperial rule. Jewish tribes also settled as nomadic pastoralists in Arabia, particularly around Yathrib (later Medina), where they were to play an important role in the emergence of Islam.

224 AD    Leonilla, a Christian grandmother, had three grandsons, Sosyphus, Cleosyphus, and Melosyphus. She begged Romigius that he would instruct the three lads in the Christian faith, and then baptize them.

224 – 561    The Sassanians become the rising Iranian dynasty, (ca. 224-561 A.D.), pressing in hard  from the west. Iran area also feeling the growing strength of the Guptas, an Indian dynasty established at the beginning of the fourth century.

231 AD    At this time there flourished as a writer the celebrated Origen, surnamed Adamantius, It is a matter of great importance that he who is washed, be washed unto salvation., “Be very heedful of this, ye catechumens, or learners, and prepare yourselves by what is told you while you are yet under instruction and unbaptized , and then come to the washing of water, and be washed unto salvation. But be not washed as some, who are washed, but not unto salvation; like those who receive the water, but not the Holy Ghost.,

240 AD Irish man becomes King of Scotland. (The Four Masters)

“Annal M240

M240.0

The Age of Christ, 240.

M240.1

The fourteenth year of Cormac.

M240.2

The battle of Magh Techt, and the fleet of Cormac sailed across Magh Rein (i.e. across the sea), this year, so that it was on that occasion he obtained the sovereignty of Alba Scotland.”

249-251     Persecution of christians under Emperor Decius

253-260     Persecution of christians under Emperor Valerian

253 AD    For this year, we read in ancient authors, that Pancratius, the son of the believing Clionius, was baptized at Mount Celius, when he was fifteen years old, after he had been under instruction twenty days.

261     Protection from molestation by Gallienus
Proclamation “in return for this indulgence of ours it will be the duty of Christians to pray to God for our recovery”

266 AD It is recorded in “The Four Masters” that Irish History was begun to be written down at this time.

“The Age of Christ, 266.

M266.1

Forty years was Cormac, son of Art, son of Conn, in the sovereignty of Ireland.

It was Cormac who composed Teagusc Na Righ, to preserve manners, morals, and government in the kingdom. He was a famous author in laws, synchronisms, and history, for it was he that established law, rule, and direction for each science, and for each covenant according to propriety; and it is his laws that governed all that adhered to them to the present time.

It was this Cormac, son of Art, also, that collected the Chroniclers of Ireland to Teamhair, and ordered them to write the chronicles of Ireland”

270      14th Feb Claudius kills Valentine for marrying Roman citizens. He had previously dissolved all marriages..

286-293 Carausius becomes rebel emperor of Britain

293-296 succeeded by his underling and murderer Allectus

296     Constantius retakes control for Rome

300 AD    Arnobius, an old teacher says (in Psalms 146), “You are not first baptized, and then apprehend the faith, and rejoice in it; but when you are about to be baptized, you state before the teacher your perfect willingness, and make your confession with your own mouth.”
Same year as above.-It is recorded that at this time there were several persons who had separated from the catholic* (Roman) church, namely: Dadoes, Sabas, Adelphius, Hermas and Simeones, who were accused of heresy by the Roman church, and, among other things, were charged with holding erroneous views concerning the divine meat (that is, the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper), and of baptism (that is, infant baptism). As regards the divine meat they were charged with holding the opinion, that it neither profited nor injured; that is, that the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper had no intrinsic virtue or value; and of baptism it was said that they maintained, that those baptized were not benefited by baptism, but that fervent prayer alone must expel the indwelling Satan; for those of the Roman church entertained the contrary view, namely, that Satan must certainly be expelled from the infants by baptism.

The Hepthalites (or White Huns) swept out of Central Asia around the fourth century into Bactria (Iran) and to the south, overwhelming the last of the Kushan and Sassanian kingdoms.

303-305     Persecution under Diocletian

306 – 337     Constantius Succeeded by his Son Constantine the great in Britain – 4 provinces

311    Protection under Tactantius, place of worship, request to pray for the Emperor, the safety of the state and their own safety.

313     Restoration of sold buildings under Constantine and Licinius

Edict of Milan

315    The time of the reign of Sylvester, who was the first pope of this name, and on the register of the Roman bishops the 34th, is fixed in the year 315.

Of this a certain celebrated author among the Romanists bitterly complains, in a very old book, saying, “These heretics (the people mentioned above) have always had many sects among them; but of all that ever existed, none was more pernicious to the church of God (understand the Roman church) than the Poor of Lyons (the Waldenses. or Anabaptists), and this for three reasons: In the first place, because of their antiquity; some asserting that they existed already in the days of Sylvester, others referring them even to the time of the apostles.”

313        It is recorded that in the first great council at Nice, held against Arius, and various innovations in the church, it was resolved among other things:
“Canon 21. The Paulianists and Photinians shall be rebaptized.”

327   The three Collas return to Ireland with a small band of warriors (possibly with experience in the Roman Army) and are recruited as mercenaries and send to invade the lower part of Ulster. “The Four Masters”

“Annal M327

M327.2

At the end of this year the three Collas came to Ireland; and there lived not of their forces but thrice nine persons only.”

Research page 169

335    At this time, Athanasius wrote “Our Saviour did not simply command to baptize, but first said, teach, and then baptize; so that true faith may proceed from the doctrine, and then baptism be perfected with faith.”

379 Niall of the Nine Hostages comes to power in Ireland and sends his two sone to invade and plant the North of Ulster.

“The Age of Christ, 379.

M379.1

The first year of Niall of the Nine Hostages, son of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, in the sovereignty of Ireland.”

380 The EASTERN Emperor Theodosius issued an edict against the Anabaptists, commanding that they should be put to death.

He had said in an Edict of 380 AD ‘we authorise the followers of this law to assume the title of Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since by our judgement they are foolish madmen we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics… they will suffer divine condemnation.. and the punishment, which our authority shall decide to inflict

(see also Charles V – Emperor 1519-1555)

383     Increase in Germanic, Pict and Irish attacks on Roman Britian.

Emperor Maximus (Catholic) declared Roman Emperor – ordered death of
Gnostic Pricillianists in Spain

383    Basilius the Great writes “Faith must precede, if the believer is to be sealed by baptism.” “When wilt thou become a Christian? When shall we recognize thee as one of our number? Last year thou deferredst it till the present Easter; and now thou wilt wait till the next. Take heed, lest thou be deceived in thy expectation of a long life.”
‘Since you cannot promise anything certain, either with regard to the child’s future faith, or its present thoughts, I pray thee, beloved, what then does it signify that, when the children are brought to baptism, the parents, as sureties, answer in their stead, and say that the children do that which at that age they cannot even think, or, which if they can, is hid from us? But those who bring the child are asked: Does it believe in God? and, for this age, which knows not whether there is a God, the parents answer: It believes. Thus also the other questions are responded to. I am astonished that in such matters the parents answer so presumptuously for the child: ”

388-392    Evegrius says, that “they who have been instructed in the word of God were the proper subjects of baptism.”

398 AD    Ninian est. church in Galloway and trains Ulster (Scoti) Converts

‘SCOTIA’
Egesippus tells how “Scotia which links itself to no land, trembles at their name”
Orosius, the third century geographer, uses “Hibernia the nation of the Scoti”.
An Irish exile on the continent, the celebrated Marianus Scotus referred to his countrymen as Scots.
The Northmen, in about the seventh century – called it Ir or Ire
After that the English called it Ireland, and its natives Irish.
For several centuries longer, however, these terms were not adopted by Continental writers, who still continued to speak of Scotia and the Scot, and designated the Irish scholars on the Continent by the term Scotus.
The new name Ireland was on the Continent, first used only in the eleventh century (by Adam De Breme).

Jerome says, “The Lord commanded his Apostles that they should first instruct and teach all nations, and afterwards should baptize them that were instructed in the mysteries of the faith; for it cannot be that the body should receive the ordinance of baptism before the soul has received the true faith.” (Jerome on Matt. 27:19-20)

400-425    Plantation of Ulster – Celtic King, ‘Niall of the nine hostages’ (Ui Neill) rules Meath, sons Connall and Owen established Northern kingdoms, battling with the Cruthin (picts) and their La Tene Celtic overlords, The Ulaid.

400 Pelagius (‘Scoti’ monk – Celtic Church) goes to Rome (Roman Catholic Church) distressed at low state of conduct – remember 313

400 Around this year Patrick is taken as a slave to Ireland. Interesting to note whites traded whites before they traded black slaves.

410 Sac of Rome

Pelagius goes to Carthage and writes ‘He will not condemn a man for what he cannot help, for He is Holy.’

410 Constantine III tells Britain to fend for itself and British Noblemen and generals take over returning to former tribal status

British Kings constantly fight the Saxons

412    DISCIPLE OF Pelagius condemned in a council at Carthage
Pelagius opposed in Palestine by Jerome but he continues to teach and write.

413    A further edict of Theodosius (380) and Honorius states
– persons who are rebaptised… and those who rebaptised them… should both be punished by death.
This was subsequently also quoted by the inquisitor of Leeuwaerden, in his controversy with Jacques d’ Allchi, in the year 1558.
These several versions of the edict of Honorius and Theodosius unanimously indicate three things 1. That at that time, A. D. 413, there were people who were called Anabaptists. 2. That on account of this matter of rebaptizing, these people were exceedingly hated by the world, especially by the great. 3. it is shown how they were hated, namely, unto death, so that the command was given, that they should be punished with death. However, intelligent people well know, that Christ, our Saviour predicted long before, that such thing would befall His disciples and followers. Matt 10:22; 24:9; Mark 13:9; Luke 21:12; John 15:19; 16:2.

It appears that the edict of Honorius and Theodosius was carried into execution, not only A. D. 413, and in some of the subsequent years, but that it was no small cause of the last great persecution of the Anabaptists, which began about A. D. 1524, through the strong urging of the Papists, especially of their clergy, who, to all appearance, by it induced the Emperor, Charles V to renew said edict against the Anabaptists of their time, as being an identical people, and of the same faith, with those who lived in the time of Honorius and Theodosius.

Pelagius V Augustine (one)     Arminianism v Calvinism

416 Pope Zosimus accepts views of Pelagius – changes his mind at ‘council of
carthage’ 473

Augustine writes (a lot of stuf similar to ‘Calvinism’!) developing earlier ideas
(two Augustines, this one is the theologian, the next one is the one on a mission to Britain)
‘the aid of perseverance.. that kind… by means of which they cannot but persevere’
‘but their capacity for belief availed them nothing, because they were not so predestined..’
‘He who partakes of god has received from him the inability to sin’

Pelagius disagrees that we were born to die and says “everything good and everything evil… is done by us… not born with us.”

428 Germanus comes to root out followers of Pelagius at request of British church

428-470    Vortigern asks Saxons for help against the Picts. They willingly agree to move to England and gradually over the next 100 years take over more and more of Romano/Celtic Britain!

434    Faustus Regiensus, a Bishop in France, taught that baptism required willingness on the part of him who comes to it

430 The Catholic mission to Ireland fails.

“M430.0

The Age of Christ, 430.

M430.1

The second year of Laeghaire.

M430.2

In this year Pope Celestinus the First sent Palladius to Ireland, to propagate the faith among the Irish, and he landed in the country of Leinster with a company of twelve men. Nathi, son of Garchu, refused to admit him; but, however, he baptized a few persons in Ireland, and three wooden churches were erected by him, namely, Cell Fhine, Teach Na Romhan, and Domhnach Arta. At Cell Fhine he left his books, and a shrine with the relics of Paul and Peter, and many martyrs besides. He left these four in these churches: Augustinus, Benedictus, Silvester, and Solinus. Palladius, on his returning back to Rome (as he did not receive respect in Ireland), contracted a disease in the country of the Cruithnigh, and died thereof.”

438         Empress Eudocia allows Jews to return to Jerusalem to live.

444        Legend/tradition Patrick founds Armagh

Two of Patrick’s writings survive..

1. The Confession
And again after a few years I was in Britain with my people……
But the more am I sorry for my dearest friend that we had to hear what he said. To him I had confided my very soul! And I was told by some of the brethren before that defence–at which I was not present, nor was I in Britain, nor was it suggested by me–
Wherefore, then, even if I wished to leave them and go to Britain–and how I would have loved to go to my country and my parents, and also to Gaul in order to visit the brethren and to see the face of the saints of my Lord!

2. The letter to Coroticus
Quotes Mk 16:16 and describes how he had to give up his life with his family in both letters
Passionately attacks Coroticus for his treatment of Irish Christians

Benedict (Italian) starts popular monasticism – renounces the world at 14 years old. Born late 400’s died 543
His followers were later to persecute the Anabaptists of the 1100’s

450    Ui Neill take over Emain Macha (100bc)  – Ulster Picts retreat East and Erect ‘Dane’s Cast’ (BPD)

451    Attila the Hun sweeping Europe destroying Roman army

487    Pope Felix III, the fiftieth in the register of the popes, held, the fourth council of Rome, established different other articles against Anabaptism and the Anabaptists, very evidently, with a view to their suppression.

498    It is stated that at this time there lived and wrote, the excellent teacher, Fulgentius, who, writing, among other things on baptism says (lib. de fide, ad Petrum, cap. 30), “Rest assured of this, and doubt not in anywise.” Continuing he says, “That no man can receive eternal life, who has not previously been converted from his sins through repentance and faith, and through the sacrament of faith and repentance been redeemed, that is, through baptism; this is absolutely necessary for adults, namely that they repent of their sins, understand the common faith, according to the truth, and receive the sacrament of baptism (upon it).”

SAXON (German)/CELTIC BRITIAN
500    Celtic Ulaid king of Dal Riada, Fergus McErc moves his capital from Ulster to Argyll (in modern Scotland)

500-520    Settlement in Galloway of Ulster Picts (scots)

529        Council of Orange – Augustinisation of Catholic Church

538    It is recorded that at the time of Justin and Justinian, the Roman Emperors, there were people, termed fanatics by their opponents, who brought over to them and persuaded the imperial councillors and ministers, that infant baptism should be abolished; against which the afore-mentioned Emperors set themselves to prevent it.-

540        Finnian brings back a copy of Jerome’s Vulgate …
And starts a war with Columba over how many bibles there should be in Ireland…allegedly 3000 people die in the battle that follows the two monks raising armies in their respective tribal areas. So Patrick’s Celtic church in Ireland swiftly follows the Roman church in its practice of using military power against dissenters.

560-580    Saxon Kentish King Eormenric develops relations with Catholic Frankish People (France)

563    Columba arrives in Iona and founds the Celtic Christian Church monastery

571        First Anglican (different kingdoms) King recorded – Uffa

580-616    Athelbert son of Saxon Kentish King Eormenric, marries Bertha, Catholic Frankish princess of Paris, cautiously accepts Augustine (two) sent by Pope Gregory I to convert the Saxons, converts to Christianity (601), organises meeting of Celtic Church with Augustine to no avail. Institutes law in Saxon kingdoms. Augustine builds Canterbury Cathedral.

589        Columbanus sets off from Bangor

593    Childerbert II gives permission to Columbanus for monastery (France)

580-600    Bangor monk becomes abbot of Ninian’s Galloway monastery

601    Pope Gregory writes to Augustine telling him to adopt some local church practices into the catholic services.
This was in response to previous letter from Augustine

610    King Theuderich, angry granny expels Columbanus for preaching against king’s concubinage. He builds monastery in Austria and after expulsion builds another in Bobbio Italy in Lombard territory

Muhammad begins to have his revelations and this continues for 23 years.

613     The Persian Sassanian Empire under Khosrau II invaded Palaestina. Jews under Benjamin of Tiberias assisted the conquering Persians, revolting against the Byzantine Empire under Heraclius in the hopes of controlling Jerusalem autonomously.

614     The Persians conquered Jerusalem, destroying most of the churches and expelling 37,000 “Christians”. The Jews of Jerusalem gained autonomy to some degree, but frustrated with its limitations and anticipating its loss offered to assist the Byzantines in return for amnesty for the revolt.

617     The Persians signed a peace treaty with Byzantines. At that time the Persians betrayed the agreements with the Jews and expelled the Jewish population from Jerusalem, forbidding them to live within 3 miles of it.

629     Byzantine Emperor Heraclius marched into Jerusalem at the head of his army with the support of the Jewish population who had received amnesty. Nevertheless, upon entry, the “Christian” priests in Jerusalem convinced the emperor that God commanded him to kill Jews and therefore his amnesty was invalid, whereupon the Byzantines massacred the Jews in Jerusalem and put thousands of Jewish refugees to flight from Palaestina to Egypt.

630        Death of Muhammad

634     Byzantine Empire lost control of the entire Mideast. The Arab Islamic Empire under Caliph Umar conquered Jerusalem along with the lands of Mesopotamia, Syria, Palaestina, and Egypt and the area remained under Islamic control for 433 years until 1099.

(July 634) Doctrina Jacobi
[Jacob’s cousin Justus is quoted here in this tract telling how he (Justus) heard of the killing of a member of the imperial guard, or candidatus, in a letter from his brother Abraham in Caesarea, in which the following account was copied to Jacob.]
When the candidatus was killed by the Saracens, I was at Caesarea and I set off by boat to Sykamina. People were saying “the candidatus has been killed,” and we Jews were overjoyed. And they were saying that the prophet had appeared, coming with the Saracens, and that he was proclaiming the advent of the anointed one, the Christ who was to come. I, having arrived at Sykamina, stopped by a certain old man well-versed in scriptures, and I said to him: “What can you tell me about the prophet who has appeared with the Saracens?” He replied, groaning deeply: “He is false, for the prophets do not come armed with a sword. Truly they are works of anarchy being committed today and I fear that the first Christ to come, whom the Christians worship, was the one sent by God and we instead are preparing to receive the Antichrist. Indeed, Isaiah said that the Jews would retain a perverted and hardened heart until all the earth should be devastated. But you go, master Abraham, and find out about the prophet who has appeared.” So I, Abraham, inquired and heard from those who had met him that there was no truth to be found in the so-called prophet, only the shedding of men’s blood. He says also that he has the keys of paradise, which is incredible. (Doctrina Jacobi V.16, 209. [p. 57])

Friday 7 February (634) at the ninth hour, there was a battle between the Romans and the Arabs of Muhammad in Palestine twelve miles east of Gaza. The Romans fled, leaving behind the patrician bryrdn, whom the Arabs killed. Some 4000 poor villagers of Palestine were killed there, Christians, Jews and Samaritans. The Arabs ravaged the whole region. (Thomas the Presbyter)

635    The Arabs invaded the whole of Syria and went down to Persia and conquered it. The Arabs climbed the mountain of Mardin and killed many monks there in [the monasteries of] Qedar and Bnata. There died the blessed man Simon, doorkeeper of Qedar, brother of Thomas the priest. (Thomas the Presbyter)

637    Battle of Moira – Ui Neill win against Pictish kings of Down and Antrim and Ulaid king of Dal Riada who now leave Ulster altogether leaving only Dal Fiatach to rule the Cruthin Picts.

637     only several years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, Arab Muslims shattered the might of the Iranian Sassanians at the battle of Qadisiya, and the invaders began to reach into the lands east of Iran.

637        Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem – 6th of December in 636 or 637.

But the present circumstances are forcing me to think differently about our way of life, for why are [so many] wars being fought among us? Why do barbarian raids abound? Why are the troops of the Saracens attacking us? Why has there been so much destruction and plunder? Why are there incessant outpourings of human blood? Why are the birds of the sky devouring human bodies? Why have churches been pulled down? Why is the cross mocked? Why is Christ, who is the dispenser of all good things and the provider of this joyousness of ours, blasphemed by pagan mouths so that he justly cries out to us: “Because of you my name is blasphemed among the pagans,” and this is the worst of all the terrible things that are happening to us. That is why the vengeful and God-hating Saracens, the abomination of desolation clearly foretold to us by the prophets, overrun the places which are not allowed to them, plunder cities, devastate fields, burn down villages, set on fire the holy churches, overturn the sacred monasteries, oppose the Byzantine armies arrayed against them, and in fighting raise up the trophies [of war] and add victory to victory. Moreover, they are raised up more and more against us and increase their blasphemy of Christ and the church, and utter wicked blasphemies against God. Those God-fighters boast of prevailing over all, assiduously and unrestrainably imitating their leader, who is the devil, and emulating his vanity because of which he has been expelled from heaven and been assigned to the gloomy shades. Yet these vile ones would not have accomplished this nor seized such a degree of power as to do and utter lawlessly all these things, unless we had first insulted the gift [of baptism] and first defiled the purification, and in this way grieved Christ, the giver of gifts, and prompted him to be angry with us, good though he is and though he takes no pleasure in evil, being the fount of kindness and not wishing to behold the ruin and destruction of men. We are ourselves, in truth, responsible for all these things and no word will be found for our defence. What word or place will be given us for our defence when we have taken all these gifts from him, befouled them and defiled everything with our vile actions? (Holy Baptism, 166-167 [pp. 72-73])

653    Kuran is standardised in written form. Further punctuation occurs during 600s and 700s. Earliest complete text is 750AD approx. Earliest copy in original dialect is dated 790AD. Second and third oldest are written 830AD approx in different script style.

663    ‘The Synod of Whitby’. Roman Christianity triumphs over Celtic – Celtic Christianity is outlawed in England and Ireland

Sebeos, Bishop of the Bagratunis
Now I shall speak about the plot of the Jewish rebels, who, finding support from the Hagarenes (Muslims) for a short time, planned to [re]build the temple of Solomon. Locating the place called the holy of holies, they constructed [the temple with a pedestal, to serve as their place of prayer. But the Ishmaelites envied [the Jews], expelled them from the place, and named the same building their own place of prayer. [The Jews] built a temple for their worship, elsewhere. It was then that they came up with an evil plan: they wanted to fill Jerusalem with blood from end to end, and to exterminate all the Christians of Jerusalem. Now it happened that there was a certain grandee Ishmaelite who went to worship in their private place of prayer. He encountered three of the principal Jewish men, who had just slaughtered two pigs and taken and put them [in the Muslim] place of prayer. Blood was running down the walls and on the floor of the building. As soon as the man saw them, he stopped and said something or other to them. They replied and departed. The man at once went inside to pray. He saw the wicked [sight], and quickly turned to catch the men. When he was unable to find them, he was silent and went to his place Then many [Muslims] entered the place and saw the evil, and they spread a lament throughout the city. The Jews told the prince that the Christians had desecrated their place of prayer. The prince issued an order and all the Christians were gathered together. Just as they wanted to put them to the sword, the man came and addressed them: “Why shed so much blood in vain? Order all the Jews to assemble and I shall point out the guilty ones”. As soon as they were all assembled and [the man] walked among them, he recognized the three men whom he had previously encountered. Seizing them, [the Arabs] tried them with great severity until they disclosed the plot. And because their prince was among the Jews present, he ordered that six of the principals involved in the plot be killed. He permitted the other [Jews] to return to their places.

667    Battle of Belfast (fearsat) – between the Cruthin (Picts) and their La Tene Celtic overlords, The Ulaid.

670    At this time, the holy baptismal ordinance of Christ was still rightly observed in Egypt; namely, the doctrines of the faith were preached to the candidates before baptism; yea, this practice was so highly regarded there, that some in other countries, separating from the Roman church in this article resolved to restore the Christian religion according to the example of the Egyptian Christians,

681        Arab conquest of Egypt

690        Anastasius of Sinai
Before any discussion we must first anathematize all the false notions which our adversaries might entertain about us. Thus when we wish to debate with the Arabs, we first anathematize whoever says two gods, or whoever says that God has carnally begotten a son, or whoever worships as god any created thing at all, in heaven or on earth…..

….. When they (the Severans) hear of “nature,” they think of shameful and unbecoming things, the sexual organs of the bodies of men and women. Because of that they avoid this word as if they wre pupils of the Saracens. For when the latter hear of the birth of God and of His genesis, they at once blaspheme, imagining marriage, fertilization and carnal union.

700-800    Islam sweeps across North Africa – Arab slave trade until 1900 trades 14 million Africans to various buyers – The adoption of Islamic concepts of slavery made it a legitimate fate for non-believers but an illegal treatment for Muslims.

708 (Jacob of Adessa, Letter to John the Stylite)
That, therefore, the Messiah is in the flesh of the line of David . . . is professed and considered fundamental by all of them: Jews, Muslims and Christians. . . . To the Jews . . . it is fundamental, although they deny the true Messiah who has indeed come. . . . The Muslims, too, although they do not know nor wish to say that this true Messiah, who came and is acknowledged by the Christians, is God and the son of God, they nevertheless confess firmly that he is the true Messiah who was to come and who was foretold by the prophets; on this they have no dispute with us. . . . They say to all at all times that Jesus son of Mary is in truth the Messiah and they call him the Word of God, as do the holy scriptures. They also add, in their ignorance, that he is the Spirit of God, for they are not able to distinguish between word and spirit, just as they do not assent to call the Messiah God or son of God.

717    A Monk of Beth Hale and an Arab Notable
The Arab asks: “What is the reason that you adore the cross when he did not give you such a commandment in his Gospel?” This the monk counters with the observation:
I think that for you, too, not all your laws and commandments are in the Qur’an which Muhammad taught you; rather there are some which he taught you from the Qur’an, and some are in surat albaqrah and in gygy and in twrh. So also we, some commandments our Lord taught us, some the Holy Spirit uttered through the mouths of its servants the Apostles, and some [were made known to us] by means of teachers who directed and showed us the Way of Life and the Path of Light.

724-36    At this time there was conspicuous in the kingdom of England, Bede, surnamed the Presbyter, who, having at one time maintained the Roman superstitions, and among these, infant baptism, now openly declared to hold different views in many points. Touching baptism, he is stated to have declared the following “All who came to the apostles to be baptized, were first instructed and taught by them; and having been instructed and taught concerning baptism, they were baptized, by virtue of the apostolic office.”
Bede (in lib. 2, Hist. Anglic.) writes of Paulinus, the teacher at York: He preached the Word of God from that time on for six years, and there believed and were baptized as many as were ordained (or destined) to eternal life, etc.; among whom there were Offrid and Eadfrid, the sons of King Edwin, who were both born to him in the misery of his exile, and were both taken out of this life while yet in their white garments.”
This is a noble example of Paulinus, who preached the word of God to the people, before he baptized them; nor is it less remarkable, that those who believed were baptized, and that the sons of Edwin, though exiles, yet the scions of a great race, having accepted the faith, humbled themselves to baptism. It was to be lamented, however, that these two youths, who might long have been lights and ensamples in the church, were taken out of this life so suddenly, even while they yet had on their white garments, which it was customary to wear immediately after baptism, as a sign of purity.
In the meantime we must rejoice that even in those benighted times, so much light of the faith shone forth, that not only some of the common people, but also the children of the great were enlightened by it, so that they willingly bowed themselves under the yoke of Christ, through baptism:
Bede, on John 4, says, “Take away the water, and there is no baptism; take away the word of God, and there is also no baptism.” Bapt. Hist., p. 505.
By this he indicates that the water cannot be separated from the Word, neither the Word from the water; that is, that the doctrine cannot stand without baptism, and baptism not without the doctrine; thus his meaning is, that both doctrine and baptism must go together. But how this applies to infant baptism, in which the Word is separated from the water, or the doctrine from the baptism, any one that has understanding can judge.
That all believers must be baptized, Bede teaches in his exposition of job 1, “Through the obedience of faith all believers must come to baptism,” and on chap. 2 he says, “No one is worthy to enter into the kingdom of God, unless he is born again of water and of the Spirit.”

732    Bede taught at this time, that Christ instituted a sacrament as a memorial of redemption. On Luke 22.
Bede is accused of writings, which mention Infant Baptism in several places, which, are believed by some to be inconsistent in character to his other more prolific writings.

730’s        John of Damascus (writing about Muslims)
Until the times of Heraclius they were plain idolators. From that time till now a false prophet appeared among them, surnamed Muhammad who, having happened upon the Old and the New Testament and apparently having conversed, in like manner, with an Arian monk, put together his own heresy. And after ingratiating himself with the people by a pretence of piety, he spread rumours of a scripture brought down to him from heaven. So, having drafted some ludicrous doctrines in his book, he handed over to them this form of worship……
….. They call us associators because, they say, we introduce to God an associate by saying Christ is the Son of God and God. To them we say that the prophets and the scripture have transmitted this, and you, as you affirm, accept the prophets. . . . Again we say to them: “How, when you say that Christ is the Word and Spirit of God, do you revile us as associators? For the Word and the Spirit are inseparable. . . . So we call you mutilators of God.”…..
….. They misrepresent us as idolaters because we prostrate ourselves before the cross, which they loathe. And we say to them: “How then do you rub yourselves on a stone at your Ka’ba and hail the stone with fond kisses?” . . . This, then, which they call “stone,” is the head of Aphrodite, whom they used to worship and whom they call Chabar……
…… He says Christ is the Word of God and His Spirit (cf. Qur’an iv. 171), created (iii. 59) and a servant (iv. 172, xix. 30, xliii. 59), and that he was born from Mary (iii. 45, and cf. ‘Isa ibn Maryam), the sister of Moses and Aaron (xix. 28), without seed (iii. 47, xix. 20, xxi. 91, lxvi. 12). For, he says, the Word of God and the Spirit entered Mary (xix. 17, xxi. 91, lxvi. 12), and she gave birth to Jesus, a prophet (ix. 30, xxxiii. 7) and a servant of God. And [he says] that the Jews, acting unlawfully, wanted to crucify him, but, on seizing [him], they crucified [only] his shadow; Christ himself was not crucified, he says, nor did he die (iv. 157). For God took him up to heaven to Himself . . . and God questioned him saying: “Jesus, did you say that ‘I am son of God and God?'” And he says, Jesus answered, “Mercy me, Lord, you know that I did not say so (v. 116). .

735        Battle of Fochairt (Louth) – Ui Neill win against Pictish kings

740    Islamicized Africans (Moors) invade Spain, and rule it until 1492.

750    By the middle of the eighth century, the rising Abbasid Dynasty of Afghanistan was able to subdue the Arab invasion. During the seventh through the ninth centuries, most inhabitants of what is present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern parts of the former Soviet Union, and areas of northern India were converted to Sunni Islam

751    Pope Zacharias furnished the ecclesiastical approbation for the shunting aside the former reigning house in ‘France’, which had been held sacred by Merovingian overlords for generations. Zacharias’ successor, Stephen II, arrived in the Frankish kingdom during the winter of 753-754, in order to seek help against the Lombards who were attacking Rome. As the reigning monarch’s oldest son, Charles (Charlemagne), then about 12 years of age, traveled ahead to welcome the Pope, who anointed him king, along with his father and his brother Carloman, thus sanctioning the new dynasty. Thus began the ‘Holy Roman Empire’ which was to become France, Germany and Italy.

756     “Eghtigern, bishop, was killed by a priest at St. Bridget’s altar, in Kildare [between the screen and the altar — Four Mast.], as he was celebrating Mass, which is the reason that since that time a priest is prohibited to celebrate Mass in Kildare in the presence of a bishop.” — Annal. Clonmac.

759    “A battle was fought between the families [i. e. the religious communities] of Clonmacnois and Birr in Moin-Coisse-Blae.” — Annal. Ult.

760    Antharitis, it was reported of him that he rejected baptism entirely “Gregory, in the Register of the Longobards, writes that Antharitis refused baptism to the children of Christians.”

763    “A battle was fought at Argamoyn between the families of Clonmacnois and Durrow, where Dermod Duff, son of Donnell, was killed, and Diglac, son of Dubliss, and 200 men of the family of Durrow. Breasal, son of Murcha, was victor, with the family of Clonmacnois.”

782    “A battle was fought in Fernamor between the abbot and steward, i.e. Cathal and Finnacbtach.”

783          Catholic church tightens its control on Ireland through ‘the Law of Patrick’ proclaimed  in Connaught in 783 and by Aedh Oirdnidhe, King of the Ui Neill at Ailech (in 805).
Clergy are given the right to collect contribution and make visitation at the
expense of the local Kings for this purpose.

788,     “A contention took place in Armagh, wherein a man was murdered in the entrance of the oratory. The burning of Clonfert-Mongain by Aengus, son of Mugron, wherein Aodh, son of Tomaltach, perished, and the oratory was burned.”

790    Writing of oldest surviving Kuran in original style of script (Ma’il style) (British Museum).

That these 14 words of Hebrew origin are used in the Koran
Tabut – ark            Sakinat- the presence of God
Taurat – law            Taghut – error
Jannatu’Adn – paradise    Ma’un – refuge
Jahannam – hell        Masanil – repetition
Ahbar – teacher            Rabani – teacher
Darasa – studying scripture so as to force a far-fetched meaning from the text
Furquan – deliverance, redemption (used this way in S. 8:42, 2:181, also misused as ‘revelation’
Sabt – Sabbath
Malakut – government

Views borrowed from Judaism
1.     Prayer – rabbis’ positions for prayer (standing, sitting, reclining) see Sura 10:13
shorten prayer in war, prayer forbidden to the drunken, prayer must be vocalised by not said loudly, Daybreak discerned by the ability to distinguish a blue (black) from a white thread
2. Women – divorced woman waits three months before remarriage, suckling time is two years, same limits on intermarriage
3. Views of Life – Death with the righteous is to be prized – S. 3:191 and Num. 23:10
Full understanding at 40 years – S. 46:14 and Aboth 5:21, Interceding effectively leads to reward – S. 4:87 and Baba Kamma 92, At death family and goods don’t follow a person, only works do – Sunna 689 and Pirke Rabbi Eliezer 34

Stories Borrowed from Judaism
Patriarchs
1. From Adam to Noah
Creation – Adam is wiser than the angels are because he could name the animals (S. 2:28-32) c.f. Midrash Rabbah on Numbers para. 19, Midrash Rabbah on Genesis para. 8 and 17, and Sanhedrin 38
The story of Satan refusing to worship Adam (S. 7:10-18; 17:63-68, 18:48, 20:115, 38:71-86) was explicitly rejected by the Jews. c.f. Midrash Rabbah on Genesis para. 8
Cain and Abel – sacrifice and murder.
Koran – raven tells Cain how to bury the body (S. 5:31)
Jews – raven tells parents how to bury body (Pirke Rabbi Eliezer Ch. 21)
Koran – slaying a soul is like slaying all mankind (S. 5:35) this is taken out of context from Mishna Sanhedrin 4:5
Idris (Enoch) – taken to Paradise after death and raised to life again. c.f. S. 19:58 with Gen. 5:24 and Tract Dereen Erez (cited in Midrash Yalku Ch. 42)

2. From Noah to Abraham
Angels living on earth – lusting after women and dividing marriages. S. 2:96 – alludes to Mdr. Abhkhir (quoted in Midr. Yalkut Ch. 44)
Noah – role as teacher and seer and the flood of hot water both match rabbinical ideas. [Compare S. 7:57-63, 10:72-75, 11:27-50, 22:43, 23:23-32, 25:39, 26:105-121, 29:13-14, 37:73-81, 54:9-18, 71:1ff with Sanhedrin 108, and S. 11:40 with Midrash Tanchuma, Section Noah, S. 11:42, 23:27 with Rosh Hashanan 162.]

3. Abraham to Moses                                                                                                  Abraham – Archetypal prophet, friend of God, lived in temple, wrote books. Conflict over idols lead to danger of being burned alive but he was rescued by God. (Compare S. 2:60, 21:69-74, 29:23-27; 37:95-99 with Midrash Rabba on Genesis para. 38). So strong is Muhammad’s identification with Abraham that he places words in Abraham’s mouth that are not suitable to anyone outside Muhammad’s context (e.g. S. 24:88, 29:17-23)                                                                                                         Joseph is the subject of almost all of the 12th sura. Additions to the Biblical story are derived from Jewish legends. (e.g. Joseph is warned away from Potiphar’s wife in a dream (s. 12:24, Sotah 6:2), Egyptian women cut their hands because of Joseph’s beauty (S. 12:31, compare with references in Midrash Yalkut to ‘The Great Chronicle’.)

4. Moses and His Time
The infant Moses refused the breast of Egyptian women (S. 28:11, Sotah 12,2)
Pharaoh claims divinity (S. 26:28, 28:38, Midrash Rabba on Exodus para. 5)
Pharaoh eventually repents (S. 10:90ff, Pirke Rabbi Eliezar section 43)
God threatens to overturn the mountain onto the Israelites (S. 2:60, 87; 7:170, Abodah Zerah 2:2)
There is a confusion as to the exact number of plagues – is it 5 (S. 7:130) or 9 (S. 17:103; 27:12)
Haman (S. 28:5,7,38; 29:38; 28:38) and Korah (S. 29:38; 40:25) are thought to be advisors to Pharaoh.

Miriam the sister of Aaron is also thought to be the mother of Jesus (S. 3:30ff, 29:29, 46:12)

5. The Kings Who Ruled Over Undivided Israel                                     Very few particulars are given about Saul or David. Solomon is discussed in much more detail. The story about the Queen of Sheba (S. 27:20-46) is virtually identical to the 2nd Targum on the Book of Esther                                                                                                 6. Holy Men After the Time of Solomon
Elijah, Jonah, Job, Shadrach, Mishach, Abednego (not by name), Ezra, Elisha

Conclusion: Muhammad borrowed a great deal from Judaism – both scripture and legend. He freely altered what he heard. ‘Conceptions, matters of creed, views of morality, and of life in general, and more especially matters of history and traditions, have actually passed over from Judaism into the Koran.’

793        Danes attack Anglican monastery of Lindesfarne

795        Norse attack Colomban monastery on Iona

799        Lex Patricii (law of Patrick) over Connaught by Gormgal

801    Tu Yu presented his encyclopaedic administrative tract, the T’ung tien, to the Chinese Ruler. It contains an extensive record of the rise of Islam.

802-839    Egbert (West Saxon) exerts overlordship of Saxons after an exile in Francia at court of Charlemagne (having married one of his relatives), invaded Celtic Cornwall 815

805 Catholic church tightens its control on Ireland through ‘the Law of Patrick’ proclaimed by Aedh Oirdnidhe, King of the Ui Neill at Ailech.
Clergy are given the right to collect contribution and make visitation
at the expense of the local Kings for this purpose.

806,     “A battle was fought between the family of Cork and the family of Clonfert-Brendan, by which slaughters multitudes of ecclesiastical and eminent men of the family of Cork

811 Norse clash with Ulaid and win (FIRST VIKING RAIDS ON IRELAND)

814,     “The church of Cluain-creamha [Clooncraff] plundered, and manslaughter committed within the church by the men of Breifne and Sil-Cathail.”
816,     “A battle was fought by Cathal, son of Dunlang, and the family of
Tigh-Munna [Taghmon], against the family of Ferns, in which 400 were slain. Maelduin, son of Cennfaeladh, abbot of Eaphoe, of the family of ColumbkiUe, was murdered. The family of Columbkille went to Tara to curse Hugh.”

817    “The erenagh of Kilmore-enir was violated, and Dubindrecht the prior was wounded at the same time by the Lagenians.”

823 Norse pillage Bangor monastery, allegedly 3000 die

825          Norse pillage Downpatrick and Moville.. but then beaten back by Ulaid

827    Battle of Leth Cam – Armagh – Ui Neill win against Pictish kings and Airgialla

829-830    Egbert recognised as overlord of England and Wales

830        Danes attack Kent and Devon and increasingly in 840’s and 50’s

Two (surviving) ‘Kufic Script’ Kurans written. One is kept in Tashkent and is known as the ‘Samarqand MSS’. The other is housed in the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul. Turkish authorities refused to allow pictures of their Koran up until 2007.

831-833    Paschasius Radberetus – introduces Transubstantiation ‘On the body and blood of the Lord’
Opposed by Rabanus Maurus  – becomes official 1215 decree of 4th Lateran council

832,     “The family of Kildare were routed within their church by CeaUach, son of Bran, in which many were slain, on the feast of St. John in autumn. The family of Clonmacnois were slaughtered, and the termon burned to the very door of the church by Felimy, king of Casliel. Likewise the family of Durrow even to the door of their church.”

834,     “Clonmacnois was profaned by Cathal, son of Ailell, lord of Hy-Many, against the prior, Flann, the son of Flaithbeartach, of the Ui-Forga of Munster, whom he cast into the Shannon and killed.” — Four Masters.

835,     “The oratory of Kildare taken upon Forannan of Armagh, and all the congregation of Patrick likewise, by Felimy, king of Cashel, by battle and arms; and the clergy were taken by liim with their submission.” — Ihid. ” The church of Glendaloch was burned, and the church of Kildare ransacked by the Danes. The Danes, upon the Nativity of our Lord, in the night, entered the church of Clonmore-Moyeog, and there used many cruelties, killed many of the clergy, and took many of them captives.” — Annal. Clomnacnois.

843    Division of the Holy Roman Empire into three, France, Burgundy, Germany, with the short lived tradition that Burgundy was Emperor

850,     “Caireall, son of Ruark, king of Loch-Uaithne, was treacherously murdered before the door of the oratory of Tighernach at Clones, by the Connells of Farney.” — Annal. Ult,

858    At this time, Gunther, Bishop of Cologne, wrote to Pope Nicholas, “Thou art playing the tyrant: under the guise of a shepherd we find thee to be a wolf. The title, indeed, is father, but virtually thou showest thyself a Jupiter.”

859    Huldricus or Uldoricus, Bishop of Augsburg, greatly complained of the violence of the popes, and said, “What will become of this flock, when the shepherds become wolves?” He openly maintained that the pope was fallible, and that it was lawful to admonish him for his error, and to reject his bad decrees.

860    At this time, there departed from the belief and practice of infant baptism, Hincmar, at one time Bishop of Laudun (SOUTH FRANCE) in as much as he would no longer baptize children, so that they grew up without baptism, and many also, who did not attain the years of understanding, died unbaptized; on account of which he was then greatly accused by (another) Hincmar, Bishop of Rheims, who to this end, wrote to him as follows, “And thou, who knowest that it is true what the Lord says: ‘Except a man be born of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven;’ hast nevertheless commanded, that infants shall not be baptized in thy church, not even when in peril of death, so that they should not be saved, though it is written: ‘The Son of man is not come to destroy men’s lives, but to save them.’ Thou hast also acted contrary to the decrees of Syricius, Leo, Gelasius, and the African council, as I have informed thee now twice by writing.”
In another letter, the Bishop of Rheims with entreating, and not less earnest words, endeavors to draw him away from his belief, writing, “Desist from preaching this (namely, that infants may not be baptized), the mere thought of which is awful; desist from scattering the flock of Christ (meaning thereby, through error, the Roman church), lest the destruction of all the people come upon thee”

Catholic Encyclopedia confirms Hincmar quarreled with his nephew, Hincmar the Younger, Bishop of Laon.

867    “Hincmar, Bishop of Rheims (NORTH FRANCE), opposed Pope Adrian II in many points, in defense of the truth. He charged him with innovation, saying that he could not be bishop and king at the same time; that he should have nothing to do with secular affairs.”

870’s    Alfred the Great develops Saxon Navy and subdues Danes pushing them out of the south, who set up Kingdom in North, 922 son Edward continues to defeat and rule Danes.

A. D. 889, “‘Eugan, sou of Ceannfaeladh, abbot of Imleach lubhar, was murdered.”

900    “Tergandus, Bishop of Treves (NORTH FRANCE), called the Pope of Rome antichrist, yea, a wolf, and Rome, Babylon.”

Pope John XIV now commanded that the great bell in the Lateran church should be baptized and named after him

900    the rise in the tenth century of a strong Sunni Samanid dynasty prevented the eastward spread of Shiism from Iran, thereby insuring that the majority of the Muslims in Afghanistan and South Asia would be Sunnis.

A. D. 903, “Kells was forcibly entered by Flann, son of Maolsechnall, upon Donnchadh, his own son ; and many were slain about the oratory.”

910    Of the necessity of baptism.- Giselbert (Alter. 1) , says, “It is true, God can save; yet, man cannot be saved without baptism; (that is, that baptism which is accompanied with regeneration, as the following words declare), for thus says the author of this sacrament himself: ‘Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot see the kingdom of God.’ It is, however, not in the power of man, to reject this way, and to choose to salvation another.”

912    Ulaid and Ui Neill peace Treaty at Tullyhogue in Tyrone

919    Ulaid and Ui Neill kings die in Battle of Dublin.

925    Ansbert (on Rev. 19), says, according to the words of Christ, John 1:13, “Which were born not of blood . . . but of God.” “Of God, that is, through the preached Word and the washing of regeneration, by which mysteries (namely, preaching and the washing of regeneration, that is, baptism) Christ still daily begets and brings forth unto Himself heirs.
Ansbert (on Rev. 21) teaches, “The trinity of the Godhead we dare not, and shall not pass by unnoticed, especially when we are baptized upon the confession’ of the holy Trinity, and are saved in the faith of the unity of the same.”
Ansbert (on Rev. 1) says, “He that has been’ washed in baptism from dead works, and, after such washing, again commits sins unto death, it avails him nothing that he was washed; hence, the Lord, through Isaiah (chap. 1, verse 16), admonishes thus: ‘Wash ye, make you clean.’ He washes and cleanses himself, who commits no new sins after baptism. But he that conducts himself thus that after such washing, he again pollutes the white robe with sin, let him still not despair of remission, if he desires to be washed again; for there is yet another baptism, with which publicans and harlots are always baptized-and what other is it but the well-spring of tears? in which Mary Magdalene, polluted with many a stain of vice, and Peter, when he had thrice denied the Lord, washed themselves.”

933    Ulaid and Norse allies beaten by Ui Neill

938    This appears from Smaragdus exposition of the institution of Christ respecting baptism., “First,” he writes” all nations were taught, and then they were baptized with water; for it is impossible for the body to receive the mystery of baptism aright, if the soul has not previously accepted the truth of the faith; for they were baptized in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.” Again, “This excellent ordinance of baptism commands the apostles; first to teach all nations, then to incorporate them by the baptism of faith, and then, after faith and baptism, to teach them what they were to observe.” Smaragdus, on Matt. 28.

938    “An army was led by Donnchadh to Fiunabhar-abha [Fennor], which he spoiled; and he killed the priest in the midst of the church, and others with him.”

939    Vietnam had gained independence from China and was Governed by Vietnamese Emperors from the 939 AD. The Vietnamese Emperors were allowed to remain right up until 1955.

945        The Bishop of Armagh is titled ‘the successor of Patrick’, for the first time in Irish literature.

952    It is stated that in the time of the. Emperor Otho the Great there lived and wrote, in Greece, a very virtuous and learned man called Theophilact,
Theophilact on John 8, says, “Since Christ came to take away the sins of the world, we can obtain remission of sins in no other way than, by means of baptism (bap necess) (however properly speaking the blood of Christ is the effective cause of the remission and taking away of sins), yet it is impossible that he ,that has not believed; be baptized (aright)(faith necessary); hence, the unbeliever must afterwards die in his sins, for he has not put off the old man, because he has not been baptized.”
Theophilaet on John 3, says, “It is not enough for the preservation of purity, to be baptized; but one must also use. great diligence, that the image of the sonship of God, which is represented in baptism, is kept unspotted.(must work out our salvation) There are many who have received, in baptism, the grace of adoption as children of God, but who, through negligence, have not remained children of God unto the end.

Theophilact on Mark 1, says, “All who came to be baptised by John, were delivered through repentance from the bond of their souls, if they believed on Christ.”
Theophilact (on I Tim. 6, where the apostle says, “Thou hast professed a good profession before many witnesses”), writes: -“This profession takes place at the instruction of those who are to be baptised; and we profess by it that we will forsake Satan, and pitch our tent with Christ, that we may fully adhere to Him.”

970        In the year 970 the Emperor, John Tzimisces, transferred some of the Paulicians (1000 miles west into Europe) to Thrace and granted them religious liberty; and it is recorded to their credit that they were true to his interests. In the beginning of the eighth century their doctrines were introduced and spread throughout Europe, and their principles soon struck deep into foreign soil.
It was in the country of the Albigenses, in the Southern provinces of France, that the Paulicians were most deeply implanted, and here they kept up a correspondence with their brethren in Armenia. The faith of the Paulicians “lived on in Languedoc and along the Rhine as the submerged Christianity of the Cathars, and, perhaps, also among the Waldenses. In the Reformation this Catharism comes once more to the surface, particularly among the so-called, Anabaptists and Unitarian Christians between whom and the most primitive church ‘The Key of Truth’ and the Cathar Ritual of Lyons supply us with the two great connecting links” (Key of Truth, x).

973 ” Dubhdalethe, successor of Patrick, made a circuit [cuaijic] of
Munster, and obtained his demand [peiji].”

975        Saxon Mercian overlord leads anti-monastic movement ‘becoming too rich too powerful too quickly ’- due to rebuilding and ejection of secular clergy.

DANISH BRITAIN
983     Danish raids recommence and turn to war (Saxon navy 870s brought 100 years of freedom.

985    Vikings discover America and build colony, which lasts for only three years

969 Olaf Tryggvason (heir to the Norwegian throne) taken as a slave by Estonian Vikings of Saarama.

1013        Swein – first Danish king of England – son Canute king of England Denmark and Norway

1010        Anselm, on Rom. 6, says, “We are baptized into the death of Christ, that we, believing in His death, and following it, may live as those who are dead; but since we, through baptism, are dead to sin, we must not again live unto sin, so that it is necessary again to die unto it; for, we are baptized into the death, that is, in the likeness of the death, of Christ; that, as He once died, and ever lives, even so we, having once died to evil, should ever live to the good; and, as a dead person can sin no more; thus also we, if we have died with Christ, shall not let ourselves be entangled again in mortal sins.

1014         Battle of Clontarf – Brian Boru defeats the resident Norse army.

1035        Bruno, Bishop of Angiers in France; the other, Berengarius, his deacon rejecting infant baptism and other articles of the Roman church. They had begun to teach as early as the year 1035, and continued therein for many years, yea, Berengarius, besides the article against transubstantiation, maintained it, as the chronicles show, until .the year 1079.

SAXON BRITIAN
1042    Saxon (half Norman) Edward regains control FROM THE BRIEF Danish rule

1042        “Buehard of Worms (lib. 6, de Sacram. Eccles.) says: ‘The examinations are for the purpose of ascertaining whether he (the candidate), after renouncing Satan, has the holy words of the faith confessed, deeply rooted in his heart, and intends to continue steadfastly in the faith.”‘

1050        Two synods, one at Rome, the other at Versailles (Baron., A. D. 1050, mum. 1), in which the doctrine of these two men (1035,1042) was condemned.

1054    The final separation of Eastern Orthodox and Western Catholic…

1055        Afterwards, when Berengarius did not cease to promulgate his doctrine, another synod was held, A. D. 1055, -at Tours in France (Baron., A. D. 1055, mum. 4), in which Berengarius feigned repentance; but as soon as Hildebrand, who afterwards became pope, had gone away, he again maintained his doctrine.,

1059    no lay appointing – Lateran Council – Henry III of Germany

1059     Henry III inaugurated a line of worthy Popes
During Reign Henry – Lateran Council of 1059 – Decree on Papal elections – speaking on the evil of control of appointments by laymen – “Pope Nicholas II… the cardinal bishops… shall give their assent to the new election..” quoted the words of St Leo “no argument will permit them to be considered bishops who have not been elected by the clergy…with the approval of the metropolitan” Nicholas continued “ since the Apostolic see… can have no metropolitan over it, the cardinal bishops perform the function of a metropolitan…saving the honour [we have granted to the king and his successors who obtain it in person from us]”

1060 – 1079    Bruno, Bishop of Angiers in France; the other, Berengarius, his deacon rejecting infant baptism and other articles of the Roman church. They had begun to teach as early as the year 1035, and continued therein for many years, yea, Berengarius, besides the article against transubstantiation, maintained it, as the chronicles show, until .the year 1079.
A. D. 1060, Bruno, Bishop of Angiers, and Berengarius, his deacon, rejected infant baptism.” See Guitmundus, Bishop of Avers, and Duramdus, Bishop of Luyck. These are their words, “Bruno, Bishop of Angiers, and Berengarius of Tours, annul the baptism of infants as much as is in their power; so that they, discarding infant baptism, counsel men to plunge themselves without fear into the deep abyss of all manner of wickedness; saying that they are not to be baptized, until they attain to years of understanding

1061        Election of an Antipope Honorius II by the Empress Agnes, as regent for her ten-year-old son, Henry IV
Anno of Cologne seized the regency, and the repentant Empress withdrew to a convent.
Honorius II  Excommunicated, but kept up the contest with dwindling prospects till his death in l 072

1066        Harold son of Godwin (Saxon client king takes throne)
1066        Sept – Harold defeats massive Norwegian Army.

NORMAN BRITAIN
1066        Oct – Battle of Hastings – Norman (Viking settlers) invade and conquer. Under banners blessed by Pope Nicholas ll

In the mid eleventh

There was an old book of the Paulicians called the “Key of Truth,” mentioned by Gregory Magistos, in the eleventh century
Mr. Fred C. Conybeare, in 1891, in quest of documents illustrative of the history of the Paulicians, fell upon a copy of the “Key of Truth” in the Library of the Holy Synod at Edjmiatzin in Armenia.
The Paulician churches were of apostolic origin, and were planted in Armenia in the first century. “Through Antioch and Palmyra the faith must have spread into Mesopotamia and Persia;… This was the primitive form of Christianity. The churches in the Taurus range of mountains formed a huge recess or circular dam into which flowed the early Paulician faith to be caught and maintained… as it were, a backwater from the main for centuries”
From the Key of Truth
As we learned from the Lord of the universal and apostolic church, so do we proceed: and we establish in perfect faith those who (till then) have not holy baptism.

Mr. Fred C. Conybeare further says
Needless to say, the great churches have long ago lost genuine baptism, can have no further sacraments, no priesthood, and, strictly speaking, no Christianity. If they would reenter the Pale of Christianity, they must repair, not to Rome or Constantinople, but to some of the obscure circles of Christians, mostly in the East, who have never lost the true continuity of the baptismal sacrament. These are the Paulicians of Armenia, the Bogomil sect round Moscow whose members call themselves Christ’s, the adult Baptists (those who practice adult baptism) among the Syrians of the upper Tigris valley

One thing is certain, that in Italy, in France, and along the Rhine, the Paulicians and the Albigenses were found in the same territory, and there were no great differences between them in practice and doctrines. Writers go so far as to assert that there was a succession of churches and of interests. It is well attested, that in the middle of the eleventh century they were numerous in Lombardy and Isurbia, but especially in Milan, in Italy; and it is no less certain that they traveled through France, Germany and other countries, and by their sanctity they won large numbers of common people to their way of thinking. In Italy they were called Paternes and Cathari, and in Germany, Gazari. In France they were called Albigenses. They were called Bulgarians, particularly in France, because some of them carne from Bulgaria, and they were also known by the name of Boni Homines (Mosheim, Institutes of Ecclesiastical History, II. pp. 200-202). Their enemies extolled their piety. A succession of them is found through the Middle Ages.

1075        William the ConK! refuses fealty to the Pope but sends customary donation (‘peters pence’)
One pence per year for every house in your kingdom

1076     Synod of Worms – Henry IV (of Germany) annoyed by Pope Gregory VII suspending of German Bishops – letter to Pope “For thou dost assert that, if the mere rumour of a sin committed by a member of our flocks reaches thee, [thou shalt bind or loose him] … this decree exceeds all madness…”

1076     Deposition of Henry IV by Gregory VII “I withdraw the government of
the whole Kingdom of the Germans and of Italy from Henry the King”

Henry then declared the Pope deposed

1081     Gregory’s response “many Pontiff’s have excommunicated kings or Emperors’ [Patrick’s excom. Of Coriticus] “who in his last hour has ever implored the aid of an earthly king for the salvation of his soul…”

Scotia changes name to Ireland round about this time

1089    William the CONK son William II (upon the death of Archbishop of Canterbury refuses to appoint bishops and takes the collection money for three years.

1092        W II Appoints Anselm to be a bishop believing he is dying

1095    William II forces Pope Urban to concede control of entry to England of Papal delegates

1097        Anselm leaves England cause he cant stand William’s attitude
1050-1109    Anselm writes theological document ‘satisfaction theory’ stating sin must be punished

1099    The Crusader Period begins in Palestine. The Crusader Kingdom survived from after the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 throughout the Ayyubid Period until 1291

1100        Williams brother Henry I recalls Anselm

1100    Out of the Samanid Dynasty came the first great Islamic empire in Afghanistan, the Ghaznavid, whose warriors, raiding deep into the Indian subcontinent, assured the domination of Sunni Islam in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of India.

1103        Henry would not allow papal election so Anselm left again
1106    Henry invades Normandy, Pope threat to excom. Henry over elections, Henry concedes elections on condition of ownership of the church lands against Anselm’s wishes.

1111        Brian Boru’s grandson sent to rule Hebrides at their request

Synod of Rath bresail in Cork; Ireland divided into 24 Dioceses and 2 Archbishoprics
Process takes 41 years finishes in 1152 Synod of Kells; 36 Dioceses and 4 Archbishoprics created

1114        Henry (of Eng.) gives daughter to Emperor of Germany Heinrich V

1122     Concordat of Worms – Henry V (Heinrich of Germany) agrees to surrender existing practice “I, Henry…do grant that in all the churches that are in my kingdom or empire there may be canonical election and free consecration…”
Pope Calixtus Ii “granted.. Henry.. elections of bishops… shall take place in thy presence.. [except in Burgundy and Italy when they will report to you within 6 months]”

1124    At this time, appeared Rupert Tuiciensis with many writings.
Rupert (lib. 13, on John 18) says, “Everyone that is to be baptized, must first believe and confess, and not until then be baptized, upon (or into) the death of Christ, and be buried with Him by baptism in order to arise.”
Rupert (lib., 11 on John 15) says, “They (the teachers) can visibly administer water baptism, but they cannot give the Holy Spirit, in whom, nevertheless, all the virtue of baptism consists.”
Rupert (lib. 3, on John 2) says, “There are many who are indeed baptized with water, but are nevertheless not renewed in the spirit of their mind, because they do not put off the works of the old man, though they are baptized in the water, and confess that they put on the new man.”

1126 At this time, there were many Christians at Arles, Narbonne, Toulouse, in Gascony, and at different other places in France, who were afterwards called Petrobrusians, after one Peter Bruis,* their most prominent teacher, and who also neither sanctioned nor practiced infant baptism. This is attested by Peter, abbot of Cluny, who says, in the beginning of his tract against the Petrobrusians, “They deny that infants who have not yet attained the years of understanding, can be saved by the baptism of Christ; and say that the faith of another cannot help those who cannot use their own faith; for, according to their view, not the faith of another, but each one’s own faith saves with baptism, because the Lord says: ‘He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be damned.’ ”

1138    Soon after the commencement of the twelfth century the O’Conors finally lost their ascendency in Ireland, for in 1121 Ua hAinnearraidh [O’Henery] was lord of the territory; and in 1138 Raghnall, son of lomhar Ua Cathain; after which the family of Ua Cathain maintained its superiority.

1139-40    “there was in Italy an honorable, godly, and learned man, simple in his life, called Arnold of Brescia, who dared teach and preach mightily against the power and authority of the pope and against the monks and priests; on account qf which he was excommunicated by Innocent, the pope of Rome, and greatly persecuted. Arnold, therefore, fled into Switzerland, and remained at Zurich, exposing all the abominations of the papists.” as did also Peter Abelard, of whom Arnold had obtained his doctrine, in France.

Pope Adrian IV (british Born Nicholas Breakspear) son of a catholic priest who became a monk and left Adrian to his own devices, (c. 1100 – 1159) was pope from 1154 to 1159 was instrumental in procuring the execution of Arnold of Brescia

1142    After a journey to Rome, Malachi brings back a new order of disciplined and reforming monks to Ireland… the Cistercians, Era of the old Irish Monasteries came to an end.

1147    Henricus Petri Tholossanus, that is, Henry of Toulouse, at this time and afterwards, vigorously attacked infant baptism, MANY FOLLOWERS

1152     Synod of Kells; 36 Dioceses and 4 Archbishoprics created

1155    Pope Adrian IV (English) gives Henry II authority over Britain, Scotland, Wales and Ireland
The Bull of Pope Adrian IV Empowering Henry II to Conquer Ireland. A.D. 1155
(Lyttleton’s “Life of Henry II.,” vol. v. p. 371.)
Bishop Adrian, servant of the servants of God, sends to his dearest son in Christ, the illustrious king of the English, greeting and apostolic benediction. Laudably and profitably enough thy magnificence thinks of extending thy glorious name on earth, and of heaping up rewards of eternal felicity in Heaven, inasmuch as, like a good catholic prince, thou dost endeavour to enlarge the bounds of the church, to declare the truth of the Christian faith to ignorant and barbarous nations, and to extirpate the plants of evil from the field of the Lord. And, in order the better to perform this, thou dost ask the advice and favour of the apostolic see. In which work, the more lofty the counsel and the better the guidance by which thou dost proceed, so much more do we trust that, by God’s help, thou wilt progress favourably in the same; for the reason that those things which have taken their rise from ardour of faith and love of religion are accustomed always to come to a good end and termination.
There is indeed no doubt, as thy Highness doth also acknowledge, that Ireland and all other islands which Christ the Sun of Righteousness has illumined, and which have received the doctrines of the Christian faith, belong to the jurisdiction of St. Peter and of the holy Roman Church. Wherefore, so much the more willingly do we grant to them that the right faith and the seed grateful to God may be planted in them, the more we perceive, by examining more strictly our conscience, that this will be required of us.
Thou hast signified to us, indeed, most beloved son in Christ, that thou dost desire to enter into the island of Ireland, in order to subject the people to the laws and to extirpate the vices that have there taken root, and that thou art willing to pay an annual pension to St. Peter of one penny from every house, and to preserve the rights of the churches in that land inviolate and entire. We, therefore, seconding with the favour it deserves thy pious and laudable desire, and granting a benignant assent to thy petition, are well pleased that, for the enlargement of the bounds of the church. for the restraint of vice, for the correction of morals and the introduction of virtues, for the advancement of the Christian religion, thou shouldst enter that island, and carry out there the things that look to the honour of God and to its own salvation. And may the people of that land receive thee with honour, and venerate thee as their master; provided always that the rights of the churches remain inviolate and entire, and saving to St. Peter and the holy Roman Church the annual pension of one penny from each house. If, therefore, thou dost see fit to complete what thou hast conceived in thy mind, strive to imbue that people with good morals, and bring it to pass, as well through thyself as through those whom thou dost know from their faith, doctrine, and course of life to be fit for such a work, that the church may there be adorned, the Christian religion planted and made to grow, and the things which pertain to the honour of God and to salvation be so ordered that thou may’st merit to obtain an abundant and lasting reward from God, and on earth a name glorious throughout the ages.

Adrian was British but nonetheless a zealot for the catholic cause
A controversy exists concerning an embassy sent by Henry II of England to Adrian in 1155. According to the elaborate investigation of Thatcher, the facts seem to be as follows. Henry asked for permission to invade and subjugate Ireland, in order to gain absolute ownership of that isle. Unwilling to grant a request counter to the papal claim (based on the forged Donation of Constantine) to dominion over the islands of the sea, Adrian made Henry a conciliatory proposal, namely, that the king should become hereditary feudal possessor of Ireland while recognizing the pope as overlord. This compromise did not satisfy Henry, so the matter dropped; Henry’s subsequent title to Ireland rested on conquest, not on papal concession, and was therefore absolute.

1155        This is the time in which, according to Nicholas Sander (but according to Caesar Baronius. A. D. 1147), there were in the vicinity of Toulouse, in France, certain humble people, who, by other writers, are called peasants, but who properly were termed Apostolics, that is, followers of the apostles. It is stated of them, that they would hold only to the apostolic writings, and that they therefore condemned infant baptism, as well as purgatory, praying for the dead, the invocation of the saints, etc.

1160    Wealthy Waldo of Lyon repents, gives to the poor, teaches people the scriptures translating in French, backing the scriptures with the church Fathers, does this for 4-5 years before being persecuted himself and his followers and dispersed into other countries
“Finally, these godly people were proceeded against with great fury, throughout Christendom; they were sent hither and thither by the inquisitors; for which we have to thank those atrocious wolves that go about in sheep’s clothing, and call themselves monks.”

1164    Henry’s II (the next English Henry) Constitution of Clarendon gave him back legal power over the church and he reinstituted jury system.
‘Churches belonging to the fee of the lord the king cannot be granted in perpetuity without his own assent and grant.’
‘When a’ clergy seat ‘is vacant.. the king…shall receive all revenues..the election must take place in the chaple of the lord the king… the person elected shall there do homage and fealty to the lord the king..’

Henry and his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, had five sons and three daughters. (Henry also had some ten children by at least four other women, and Eleanor had several of those children reared in the royal nursery with her own children; some remained members of the household in adulthood.)

1166         Trial by Jury, Common Law under Henry ii

1170        Strongbow aids Diarmaid Murchada, deposed king of Leinster

Welsh Prince, Madoc ab Owain Gwynedd leads expedition to
America and his settlers build series of fortifications along the Alabama river including ‘Lookout Mountain’, ‘Fort Mountain’ and ‘Old Stone Fort’. Verified 600 years later by 80 year old Cherokee chief who had ruled for 60 years (1782).

1170        Rise of the Waldesians
NOTE.-It appears from several ancient writers, that the Waldenses, or, at least, people who held the same belief, existed long before the year 1170, yea, before 1160; seeing that already in the year 1160 they had increased to such an extent, that they were summoned to Rome before a synod, and were condemned there as obstinate heretics. Johan. de Oppido. The same occurred A. D. 1164, in the synod of Tours. Hence, when their beginning is fixed A. D. 1170, this must not be understood Of their origin, but of their rising, progress, and greatest prosperity.

NICKNAMES OF THE WALDESIANS
And because those who adhered to the doctrine of Waldo, left Lyons, stripped of all human means, having had to leave behind the most of their goods, they were derisively called, The Poor Men of Lyons.”
Chaignards, that is, Dogs., “Also because a part of them crossed the Alps, they were called Transmontani., “After Joseph, one of Waldo’s disciples who preached in the bishopric of Dije, Lower Dauphine, they were called Josephists., “In England they were called Lollards, after Lollardus, one of those who preached there., “After two priests, Henry and Esperon, who taught the doctrine of Waldo in Languedoc, they were called Henricians and Esperonists., “After Arnold, one of their pastors or teachers, who preached in Albigeois, they were called Arnoldists., “In Province they were called, in an unknown tongue, Siccars., “In Italy they were called Fratricellii, that is, Little Brothers, because they lived like brothers in true unity., “Also, as they observed no other day of rest or holiday, than Sunday, they were styled Insabbathi or Insabbathas, that is, Sabbathless, or not observing Sabbaths., “Because they were continually subject to, and underwent sufferings, they were called Patarins or Patariens, that is, Suferers, from the Latin word pati, to suffer., “Because they, as poor wanderers, fled and traveled from country to country, they were termed Passagenes, that is, Travelers or Vagrants., “In Germany they were called Gazares, which signifies, Accursed and Abominable; but thus the pope of Rome has always been accustomed to call those who oppose the Roman faith., “In Flanders they were called Turilu¢ini, that is, Dwellers with Wolves, because, on account of persecution, they were often compelled to hide and live in wildernesses and forests, in close proximity t0 Wolves., “Sometimes they were named after the region or district where they lived, as Albigenses, from Albi; Toulousians, from Toulouse; Lombards, from Lombardy; Picards, from Picardy; Lyonists, from Lyons; Bohemians, from Bohemia
Thereafter, the origin and cause of said names, according to Jean Paul Perrin Lyonnois, who has noted the same, is further explained by D. Balthasar Lydius, in his treatise on the Various names of the Waldenses, 3d chapter of Perrin, from page 48, col. 1, to page 82, col. 2; in which the true innocence and uprightness of said people, though they were sometimes called bad names, is demonstrated in all simplicity and clearness.
…he writes there, that said people were also “called Catharists, that is, Heretics, because they were called heretics by their opponents., “They were called Publicans, because they were compared by the Romanists to publicans or open sinners., “From the Latin word lolium, signifying weed, they were called Lollards; though, as stated above, this name was also given them from Lollardus, a teacher; however, they were likened to lolium, a weed that grows among the corn, because they, (the papists said) ought to be rooted out like the tares from among the corn; this name they also retained in Germany, Sarmatia, Livonio,” etc., “They were called Runcari because they lived near Runcalia, not far from Piacenza., “They were called Barrini, from Mount Barrio of Barian, a place in the district of Crema, in Italy. Also Cotterellos, because they lived on the mountains known as the Cottian Alps. They were also called Comists, because they lived in the city of Como, in Italy., “In Germany they were called Grubenheimer, that is, Cave-dwellers, because necessity compelled them to live underground, in pits and caves., “In France they were termed Texerants, that is, Weavers, because there were many weavers among them.”

We shall therefore pass over all those concerning whom there is evidence that they only bore the name of Waldenses, but were not such in deed; and turn to those of whom ancient history testifies that they confirmed the name by the deed in faith as well as in doctrine.

Abbot Peter Cluniacensis, in the first article of Peter Bruis and Henry Tholossanus, makes mention of the belief of the Waldenses, and says, that “they (with said two men) denied that infants in the years of their irrationality can be saved by the baptism of Christ, and maintained, that the faith of another cannot help them, because they cannot use their own faith.” Hence, they said, “Though the infants are baptized by the papists, yet, since they cannot believe, their infancy preventing them, they are by no means saved by baptism. But we choose a proper time of faith, and do not rebaptize men, as is alleged against us, since they know their God, and are prepared to believe on Him; but we then baptize them aright, lest it might be said, that they are rightly baptized, who, though baptized in infancy, are not baptized with the baptism by-which sin is washed away.” This the Waldenses are wont to say, says the writer.

Reinerius, in former times a priest of the order of Dominicans, who lived in and about the time of the rise of the Waldenses, and who gives the following with regard to their belief, “They (the Waldenses) say, that the washing of baptism given to infants is of no use
“As regards baptism, some (he means the Waldenses) err, saying: ‘Infants are not saved by baptism, Mark 16:16. But he that believes and is baptized, shall be saved; but the child does not believe, and, hence, is not saved (by baptism).’ …

1171    Henry II army occupies Ireland
makes treaty with High King to be overlord to the Normans in Ireland,
Commands King of Connacht to mind the Irish.
Strongbow is granted Kingdom of Leinster.

1177    Norman Baronial Adventurer John de Courcy conquers some parts of Ulster (east Antrim, East Down and North Derry) building castles at Carrickfergus and Dundrum.

“O’Annoc and O’Cellchin of Kill-mor ; OSluaisti of Cuil-0’Sluaisti [now Coolodushttj, in the parish of Tulla, county of Clare] ; O’Glesain. These were they who stole the horses and the mules and the asses of the Cardinal [Vivianus] who came from Rome to the land of Erin [in the year 1177, and again in 1186], to instruct it, in the time of Domhnall Mor OBrieu, king of Munster [who assumed that sovereignty in 1169, and died in 1194]. And it was on that account the successor of Peter sold the rent and tribute of Erin to the Saxons. And that is the right and title that the Saxons follow on the Gaedhil at this day, because it was to the successor of Peter, to Rome, used to go the rent.

1182    Ulaid seek help of De Courcy against Ui Neill. Ui Neill clan Owen defeated.

1187        Fall of Jerusalem to the crusaders. Kingdom lasts 104 years until 1291

1199     France refuses the Kingship of King John of England (youngest son of Henry ii)

1202 Innocent III – “the right and authority to examine the person so elected king belongs to us who anoint…”

1205    De Lacy take over De Courcy after slandering him greatly to King John.

1207        John stops papal ELECTION OF CANTERBURY

1208        De Lacy wars with Munster English (pain in the neck to John)
Norman in fighting in Ireland

1209        John excom by Pope
Pope invites France to invade England

1212        John submits to Pope

During John’s reign coinage for Ireland was struck.

1214    John concedes free church elections – ‘let our assent be demanded which we in turn will not deny..’

1215    Magna Carta – 63 ‘we will and firmly command that the English church be free…’

1215         Transubstantiation official – decree of 4th Lateran council

1220-1506     Mongol Rule in Afghanistan; Genghis Khan’s Mongol invasion of Afghanistan in the early thirteenth century which has been described as resembling “more some brute cataclysm of the blind forces of nature than a phenomenon of human history,” even a warrior as formidable as Genghis Khan did not uproot Islamic civilization, and within two generations his heirs had become Muslims.
Mongols and Other central Asian Dynasties ruled Afghanistan from various power centers during this period and Kabul changed hands a number of times between warring empires to the East in India and West

1223        Rule of St Fransis of Asissi

1225-74    S. Thomas Aquinas (Dominican Monk) writes on heresy, “1. with regards to heretics.. there is a sin.. whereby they be… not only excommunicated but also put to death,…2. ..the church … leaves him to the secular court, to be exterminated…”

1230    It is stated that the Waldenses, whose good confession we have already shown, declared at this time in the proceedings which it seems they had against the pope, that their numbers were so great in Germany, France and Italy, and especially in Lombardy-where their teachers lived, to whom they annually sent sustenance from other countries-that any one of them traveling from his country to Milan, could lodge every night with one of his own persuasion, whom they recognized by certain marks on the door or upon the roof.

1235    Towns of Galway and Athenry and several others founded and counties Roscommon and Leitrim left to the Irish

1238-9    the Waldenses had thus increased in France and Flanders, that a certain Dominican monk, Robert Boulgre, sent as inquisitor by Pope Gregory IX, put to death a countless multitude of them;

1255                Thus, in 1255, a bull of Pope Alexander IV. provided that the Arch-bishop of Armagh should visit the province of Tuam every five years, and continue twenty-seven days in the visitation, instead of the septennial visitations, in which the continuance was unlimited. This privilege was published in a provincial synod at Drogheda, convened in 1262

1259    At this time, or thereabouts, Gerard Sagarellas, an Italian, but a doctor of Paris, wrote a book against the Franciscans, whereupon Bonaventura, General of the Franciscan order, replied; however, of this Gerard and his belief, as also of that of the Waldenses, we shall speak more fully hereafter. We would only stop to say that from this time on, his disciples, the Fratricelli, or Little Brothers, after the year 1285, called Dulcinists, began secretly (from fear of persecution) to hold their meetings in the mountains of Piedmont, and Novara, in Lombardy, professing the doctrine of the Waldenses. However, from the different places where they lived, they received different names; but the appellation Fratricelli or Frerots, was especially given them, because they called each other brethren in Christ; nevertheless the mouths of the scorners thus spoke only the truth, since Christ Himself so called His disciples, saying, “All ye are brethren” (Matt. 23:8); and”I will declare thy name (O God) unto my brethren; in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee” (Heb. 2:12)

1260    Gaelic alliance defeated at Battle of Downpatrick by English Normans.
Normans organize Ireland into eight counties, Dublin, Louth, Waterford, Cork, Tipp, Limerick, Kerry, and Connacht, and six other areas known as liberties, Meath, Wexford, Carlow, Kildaree, Kilkenny and Ulster…

1261    And yet the authority of the Primate, even as metropolitan, was not in all instances cordially acquiesced in, for Hugh de Tachmon. Bishop of Meath, till 1261, claimed an exemption for himself and his clergy from the Archbishop’s visitation, and maintained long and expensive suits with him at the court of Rome, which, however, were eventually ruled in favour of the Archbishop”.

1262    Thus, in 1255, a bull of Pope Alexander IV. provided that the Arch- bishop of Armagh should visit the province of Tuam every five years, and continue twenty-seven days in the visitation, instead of the septennial visitations, in which the continuance was unlimited. This privilege was published in a provincial synod at Drogheda, convened in 1262

At this time the Waldenses are again mentioned, who lived in Lombardy, and in the country of Genoa, and professed a sound profession, though they were called heretics by the papists, and were oppressed and persecuted by open decrees of the Roman see;

1275        Tir Owen invades Tir Connell but eventually loose the war.

1280    In this year it is recorded that said people professing the above profession (namely, the Waldenses, then called Waldois, after Waldo and his adherents, were expelled from Lyons), so multiplied in Lombardy that their doctrine, having spread in Italy, penetrated even into Sicily; as is attested by the open letters emitted against them by the Emperor Frederick II.

1283        Tir Connell loose to Tir Owen

1279    Edward I (longshanks) institutes ‘Statute of Mortmain’ – states King’s license is needed before property can be bequeathed to the church. (this was happening frequently to avoid death duties)

1286    Richard De Burgh of Ulster subjects the O’Donnell and for a time The Owens too. Later builds castle of Moville and plants colony.

1287    Probus, Bishop of Tullo, was at this time so enlightened of God that he not only opposed Pope Honorius IV, but also delivered an excellent oration, in which he freely exposed the errors of the papists. Compare Catal. Test. fol. 654, with the 13th book van den Ondergang, p. 614, col. 1.

1291        The last major Crusader stronghold, Acre fell in 1291, at the Siege of Acre.

1295        Edward I (longshanks) institutes model parliament

1296     Boniface III – to prevent the taxing of clergy – anyone who taxes the
Clergy “should incur sentence of excommunication..”

1297    Normans summon first Irish Parliament with representatives from all the counties and liberties

1299    certain Albigenses and Waldenses, called Fratricelli, or Little Brothers (of whose faith and life we have spoken elsewhere), became so odious to Boniface VIII, Pope of Rome, on account of their uprightness, which the papists called falseness, that he declared them heretics; but as we intend elsewhere to speak more fully of their belief and walk among men, we will content ourselves here with merely mentioning them; it being sufficient for us that these people and their doctrine existed until the very close of this century.

1302     Boniface bull resented by ‘Edward I’ of England and also ‘Philip IV’ of France. who sent an agent to imprison the Pope who promptly died.

During this century it is widely reported and accepted that a great persecution against the Waldesians and others with their doctrine together with princes or governors who defended them, occurred especially in France but also in England and other European countries

1305    The learned Leonard Krentzheim, in his Chronicle writes the following concerning Dulcinus, “Dulcinus and Margaret founded a new sect or heresy (thus the papists speak) in every respect like the Anabaptists; which continued until A. D. etc.”

1314    Robert the Bruce defeats the English at Bannockburn.
1315    Edward Bruce and his 6000 galloglasses teams up with the O’Neill’s and assumes command of an army to drive out the Normans and conquer Ireland. Defeats Richard de Burgh and is crowned king of Ireland on May 1 1316

1315    D. A. Mellinus gives an account, for this year, of many orthodox Christians

Concerning baptism he writes, that it was reported of them, that they had ridiculed the sacrament of baptism.
But who does not know, that if they ridiculed the sacrament of baptism, they meant it only as far as infant baptism is concerned; for this was the mooted question at that time. However, Mellinus gives his opinion, which does not conflict with ours, as to what was their belief in this matter. His words are these, “As regards the article of the sacrament of baptism (namely, that they should have entirely rejected it), it must not be understood with reference to the true institution of Christ, but to the belief of the papists, who bind the grace of Christ and the power of the Holy Ghost to the external water of baptism.”

1318    Edward defeated by John de Birmingham at Faughart.
Ireland once again in Norman English hands

1328    In France following the sudden extinction of the Capetienne lineage by the unexpected deaths of the 3 sons of Philippe le Bel, the French choose Philippe, the count of Valois, as king rather than Edouard III, the king of England and nephew of the deceased French king. Using old French law regarding women and property

1335 The metropolitan jurisdiction of Dublin was challenged by the diocese of Ossory, when Alexander de Bicknor, in 1335, asserted the visitatorial rights of his see, which had not been exercised during a period of forty years since about 1295.

1343        Bull of Clement IV defends indulgences

1348-49     The great Plague

1351     ‘First statute of provisors’ – Due to ‘The hundred years war between France and England (and the fact that the pope now resident in France had control of election of English Bishops) Richard II ruled ‘the pope of Rome… grants the same benefices to aliens, who never dwelt in England… our lord the king shall have and enjoy … the collations to the dignities elective.. the king has established that if any pursue … sentences of excommunication.. or other things against him… or his realm…that they’ and their supporters ‘be put out of the kings protection… and their lands forfeited…’.’

1364    Ui Neills of Clandeboye who planted the Earldom of Ulster claim kingship as English power shrinks to the pale

1365        Another wave of persecution of the Waldesians in France

1370        1370.–“At this time,”,”John Wickliffe, a teacher in England, and pastor at Lutterworth in the bishopric of Lincoln, taught, among other things, that baptism is not necessary to the forgiveness of original sin; thereby sufficiently opposing, or, rejecting, infant baptism, which is founded upon the forgiveness of original sin
the fourth article, extracted from Wickliffe’s Trialogue, by William Widefort, a Minorite, and quoted by A. Mellinus. It reads as follows, “Those who say,” says John Wickliffe, “that the children of believers, which die without baptism, are not saved, are much too presumptuous and bold.”
John Wickliffe, having fled from England to Bohemia, propagated his doctrine there jointly with the Waldenses

1381        During the reign of Richard II, John Wycliffe comes on the scene
condemning the abuses in the C of E.

1381    Niall Ui Neill (980 yrs on) has Armagh party to legitimise his claim to Ulster.

1387        Chaucer writes Canterbury Tales (knight’s tale) !

1391        Matthias Flaccius Illyricus states that he has an entire inquisitorial book, full of the proceedings held against the godly Waldenses who lived in the countries lying on the Baltic Sea
Said Illyricus also had among his writings, another brief inquisition or investigation against the Waldenses; such as formerly was practiced against them in the bishopric of Mayence. He moreover says that he has still another, large book, full of proceedings held by the inquisitors against the Waldenses; in which 443 Waldenses are mentioned by name, who about A. D. 1391, in Pomerania, the Mark, and the adjacent places, were put on the rack and examined on the articles once confessed by the Waldenses. Many of these martyrs or confessors freely testified and confessed that they had been, one twenty, another thirty years, among this sect. Also, that their forefathers held the same doctrine.

1394    Inspired by Wycliffe, the Lollards (political reformers) wrote in ‘Lollard conclusions’ ‘6’- church and state should be separate, ‘9’ – the practice auricular confession is not necessary for salvation, ‘12’ – England make too many guns, and (‘10’) too much war

1400    Scottish MacDonalds take over glens of Antrim and were reinforced for two hundred years

The universities of Prague in Bohemia, Oxford in England, and Paris in France, wrote against the apostasy of the Roman church, and demanded a reformation

1401        ‘Henry IV’ begins official English persecution of ‘heresy’
‘such sects…write books.. and go from diocese to diocese… without license… none from henceforth, preach, hold, teach, or instruct anything openly or privately, or make or write any book contrary to the Catholic faith…and that all ..having such…be arrested.. till they purge him.. and if any person do refuse to abdure.. before the people in a high place cause to be burnt…’
EXPANDED UNDER HENRY V, REPEALED UNDER HENRY VIII, REVIVED UNDER MARY, AGAIN REPEALED UNDER ELIZABETH I.
Finally reworked, One more time in 1920 by The Government of the Irish Republic when it banned anti-catholic literature…

1401    Statutum ex Oficio, or Edict of King Henry IV against the disciples of Wickliffe, in England
Accused of teaching 12.”That a child, though it die unbaptized, will be saved.”

1405 ‘Ming Map’ of the world including North and South America in their
entirety! Maybe they got a tip from a welsh man? (see 1170)

1414    Council of Constance finally gets it together – condemns Wycliffe and Hus

1415        Henry V invades France to restore French Empire

1415    Council of Constance – ‘this holy council.. the pope himself is bound to obey it…’
Pope Martin V however elected by the council asserted that the councils were subordinate to the pope.
Pope Martin was appointed to heal the schism of two popes.

1415    Hus inspired by the writings of Wycliffe beginning to attract a following and Waldenses join him. But upon his death his non- Waldenses followers war against the persecutors. Waldenses separate and are persecuted together with other Waldenses who had not joined the Hussites
Concerning the difference between the Hussites proper and Taborites, who were united with them, D. Balthazar Lydius gives this explanation, “The followers of John Huss were divided into two sects, the one called Praguers, the other Taborites; of whom the Taborites were the stricter. Tract entitled: ‘Where the church was before the year 1160; or before the time of the Waldenses;’ printed in the year 1624

1431        The confession of the Thabotites, in the year 1431; confirms that in this century there were many Baptists, especially in Bohemia. They say, “We do from our hearts acknowledge that the ordinance of baptism is washing, which is performed with water, which, according to Christ’s words, doth hold out (i. e. in a figure) the washing of the soul from sin according to Christ’s command.”

1431-38    Council of Basle – England, France and H. R. Empire secure points against papal encroachments, contributions restricted, papal provisions forbidden

1439    Contributions to Rome restricted, papal provisions forbidden in HRE, England and France.

1441    Beginning of European slave trade in Africa with first shipment of African slaves sent directly from Africa to Portugal. With the complicity and blessings of the Catholic Church. The Portuguese would come to dominate the gold, spice and slave trade for almost a century before other European nations became greatly involved.

1442,     Nov. 8, Primate Prene wrote to his commissary in the diocese of Derry stating that at the time ” missa; nostri Pallii,” in the preceding summer, John bishop of Derry had preferred a complaint against Roger OKathan, captain of his nation, of his having seized the rents and profits of his church of Tamlat, which belonged to the see: and also against Catlian OKathan, son of the said Roger, for having robbed him, when coming to Armagh.

Also in 1442 the case of Archbishop Prene, who pronounced the sentence of suspension, excommunication, and interdict, against the Dean and Chapter of Raphoe, and declared Nunerus al’ Naghton O’Donnell, chief of his nation, a heretic, because they had usurped, seized, and detained the fruits and profits of the bishopric then vacant; styling himself ” Gustos spiritualitatis et spiritualis jurisdictionis ac tempo-
ralitatis episcopatus Rapotensis,” and appointing Odo M’Cathmaill, canon of Derry, his commissary and subcustos, decreeing also that the ” figura beatse crucis ecclesia cathedralis Rathpotensis” should remain in his church of Armagh so long as they persisted in said schism, and that the secular arm should be resorted to in the person
of Henry, the eldest son of O’Neill”.

1475 Yea, Mellinus, as though he had forgotten himself, writes that A. D. 1475, in the bishopric of Eichstaedt, in Germany, a great number of Christians were discovered and apprehended, who professed the doctrine of the Waldenses.
Yea, that even sixty-nine years afterwards, namely A. D. 1544, the Waldenses of Merindol and Cabriere delivered a confession of faith, at Paris in the parliament, to the King of France, in defence of their innocence.

1479    European slave trade included Spain from 1479

1481        It is stated that in this year King Matthias, on the solicitation of some evil-disposed persons, issued a decree against the Moravians or Moravian brethren.
These Moravian brethren are called Old Waldenses by Jacob Mehrning, who also shows that various excellent and learned men reckoned among the Anabaptists proceeded from them.

1492    Columbus allegedly discovers America and allegedly brings a new strain syphilis back to Europe with kidnapped natives. The outbreak allegedly claims 5 million lives all across Europe.

1507        -“In this year,” writes P. J. Twisck,”the Vaudois, Waldenses, or believers were cruelly persecuted in Hungary, and delivered the confession of their faith, together with an apology, to Uladislaus, King of Bohemia, refuting the calumnies of their enemies, and proving that they had not separated from the Roman church without good reasons. Of these people, papistic writers themselves confess, that they led an innocent and pious life, though they nevertheless cruelly sought to kill and exterminate them.”

1509    Henry VIII groomed for the clergy till his elder brothers death means he becomes King. Master of French and Latin, Applies to be Holy Roman Emperor in 1519, tried to have Wolsey elected Pope in 1521,

1516         The Ottoman Turks occupy Palestine

1517        Luther’s Theses
54 – a wrong is done to the word of God when in the same sermon an equal or a longer time is devoted to indulgences than to God’s word.’
Henry responds with ‘Defence of the seven sacraments’

1519    Charles V elected emperor. – Favourable to reform and Luther writes to encourage him to do so. ‘the revenues of the prelacies and of all the churches drawn to Rome…’

1519    Henry VII was first Tudor. Henry VIII needed to stabilise Ireland as there has been ongoing Yorkist and Lancastrian factions all through the war of the roses (Norman in-fighting)
Henry VIII dispatches Earl of Surrey to reduce Ireland to Order and bring about the unification and Anglicization of the Irish church. Wolsey’s underlings also went to aid the process and complained bitterly of the barbarity of natives and Norman alike (churches in disrepair-only the monks said mass-monks stiffened Irish resistance to Henry)– army needed 6000 – Henry not prepared.

1520        Luther appeals to the German Nobility
“In Italy and Germany there are many rich convents… as the best way of getting these into the hands of Rome they created Cardinals… now that Italy is sucked dry they come to Germany. …we shall soon see Germany brought into the same state as Italy. Poor Germans that we are .. we were born to be masters..”
Luther condones infant baptism
Luther Excommunicated

1521        Henry entitled ‘defender of the faith by Pope

1521    Charles V body swerves the Pope’s warning regarding Luther by slapping Luther’s wrist

1525    Anabaptists flee Zurich after being condemned by Zwingley and begin the spread of the REAL continuity movement.

1527    Henry becomes infatuated with the younger sister of his mistress and seeks a divorce from new Pope clement VII, who being dissuaded by Roman Emperor Charles V (Henry’s wife’s Nephew) refuses, by procrastinating 6 years, Scandinavia adopts Lutheranism, Cromwell advises Henry to do likewise,

1529        Luther’s Catechism – 4 the sacrament of holy baptism

1529     Simon Fish publishes his book, “The sumine of the holye scrypture” an edition of a German book of 1523 written originally by Henricus Bomelius, The book teaches that baptism comes after hearing the gospel by being “plunged under the water” (it can be found at the University Library in Cambridge)
The book was condemned by Archbishop Warham and the english bishops at the command of Henry the Eighth, in 1530. Fish’s book rebuts Luther on his ‘faith only’ teaching.
Fish teaches that the word of God must be preached, it must be believed and be followed by confession of Christ as Lord, repentance and baptism by immersion for the forgiveness of sins contacting with the blood of Jesus and resulting in addition to the church.

1530         Confession of Augsburg – Luther and Zwingley (of Switz) try to unite

1531    Simon Fish is arrested and dies in prison of Bubonic Plague before he could stand trial. (see 1529)

1532        Calvin sees the light accepts Jesus.. No baptism involved

1532 James Bainham is burned at the stake in London after a period in the coal cellar at Lambeth Palace (the home of the Archbishop of Canterbury) for his Anabaptist beliefs. He was a member of a congregation that met near Bow Church in East London. After his first arrest he recanted at the sight of his torturer but days later stood up in a church of England holding aloft an illegal bible and shouted out (in tears),
“… if I should not return to the truth this Word of God would damn me, body and soul, at the day of judgement…”. He was rearrested and gave his life for Christ in the flames.

1533        Church of England set up and divorce came through for Henry VIII

1534     Society of Jesus founded – more on their rules in 1540 – right wing extremists

Rebellion of Lord Offally – British (Norman) Cannon used to attack their garrison and all survivors were executed

1535        Henry excommunicated Pope Paul III

1536-39    Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries in England – Henry made head of the church of Ireland – noticeable in towns and the pale)

1538        Henry VIII orders bible in English to be available.

1539        Henry confirms Transubstantiation

Friars and priests of Ulster accused of preaching ‘every man… make war against our sovereign Lord the King’

1540    Pope Paul III gives approval of Ignatius Loyola’s ‘Society of Jesus’ – The Jesuits
Spiritual exercises – 13… If the church shall have defined anything to be black which to our eyes appears to be white, we ought in like manner to pronounce it to be black….
Obedience of the Jesuits – ‘…by rejecting with a kind of blind obedience all opposing opinion or judgement of our own…’

1540        In the year 1540, or a little before, certain persons were brought captive by the Turks, from Moraviain Chezk rep. In Eastern Europe, to Thessalonica, in Turkey, and sold as slaves; which slaves there became acquainted with the (Thessalonian) Christians. Observing their life and conversation, they said to these Thessalonians, that in Moravia there lived a people who were like them in life and conversation, and were called Anabaptists; which kindled in the Thessalonians a zeal to examine the truth of the matter; and it further happened, as the testimony states,” etc.

1541    Henry VIII declared King of Ireland by Irish Parliament – Henry adopts harp as new sign of Irish
Norman and Gaelic Irish become united in rebellion against the English Normans more so with religion now playing a part.

1544    the Waldenses of Merindol and Cabriere delivered a confession of faith, at Paris in the parliament, to the King of France, in defense of their innocence.

1545-1563    The Council of Trent – Popes forced unwillingly to hold council…protestant deputations from Germany admitted..
On scripture and tradition – ‘… this truth and this discipline are contained in written books and in unwritten traditions, which were received by the Apostles from Christ… traditions … either from the lips of Christ or by the dictation of the Holy Spirit and preserved by unbroken succession in the catholic church…’
4 Also anyone who denies infant baptism goes to hell
Anyone who believed they are saved by faith alone goes to hell
Anyone who does not believe in the Eucharist goes to hell

1547    Charles V again gets let off by the Pope for letting Luther live by giving concessions to Catholic Doctrine in Germany

Death of Henry VIII

By a war of attrition using raiding as a strategy the English Normans of Henry VIII had subdued about half of the Irish Lands.

The Flat Earth Society is founded

1549    “Ask me, and I shall answer you: for I no longer feel the least pain in my flesh, as I did before.” – Elizabeth, during torture, AD 1549

1550        A Strangers Church (Reformed) was established at Austin Friars (London) by order of Edward VI in 1550. This congregation was modeled on the Continental reformed churches, and were generally considered outside of the local bishops control. Other similar congregations would appear in other large communities.
The Crown needed foreign artisans and business in England. The Strangers Church was a concession to foreign reformed church members. It also served as a control point for those reformed church members from mingling into the local parishes.
Ironically these congregations were far more reformed in actual fact than anything officially allowed under the current Church regulations. Anabaptist’s worshiped here, or in secret. Many members of these Strangers Churches often attended other local parish services, which facilitated the spread of their beliefs into the larger general community.

‘An address delivered by the cardinals of the Roman court to Pope Julius III in 1550 immediately his elevation to the papacy. It is contained in a historical document of Reformation times that is present today in the National Library of Paris in Folio B No. 1088 Pg. 641-650. It contains among others, the following interesting passage:

“Of all the advice we can offer your holiness, we have kept the most necessary to the last. We must open our eyes well and use all possible force in the matter, namely to permit the reading of the gospel as little as possible especially in the vernacular, in all those countries under your jurisdiction. Let the very little part of the gospel suffice that is usually read in the mass and let none be permitted to read more. So long as the people will be content with that small, your interests will prosper. But as soon as the people want to read more, your interest will begin to fail. The Bible is the book that more then any other has raised against us the tumults and tempests by which we have almost perished. In fact, if anyone examines closely and compares the teachings of the Bible with what takes place in our churches, he will soon find discord and realize that our teaching is often different from the Bible and oftener still, contrary to it. And if the people wake up to this, they will never stop challenging us till everything is laid bare and then we will become the object of universal scorn and hatred. Therefore it is necessary to withdraw the Bible from the sight of the people, but with extreme caution in order not to cause rebellion.”

1551    “What would you do for your faith? Not much, I think. Hence repent, before you are brought to shame.” – Catherine, burned at the stake, AD 1551

1553        Mary starts catholic reform

1554        John Knox move to Geneva The hero of the Scotch Reformation,” says Schaff, “though four years older than Calvin, sat humbly at his feet and became more Calvinistic than Calvin. John Knox spent the five years of his exile (1554-1559), during the reign of Bloody Mary, mostly at Geneva, and found there ‘the most perfect school of Christ that ever was since the days of the Apostles.’
In a very real sense the Presbyterian Church of Scotland is the daughter of the Reformed Church of Geneva.

1555    Peace of Augsburg – Charles V says OK Catholics and Protestants in Germany
‘However all such as do not belong to the two above mentioned religions shall not be included in the present peace but be totally excluded from it.’
1558        THOMAS VAN IMBROECK Cologne In the first place, our opponents say, it is written, “Suffer little children to come unto me; for of such is the kingdom of heaven” (Matt.. 19:14). Now, if they have the promise, why should they not also receive baptism, which is less than the promise?
Answer. We believe and, confess that infants are saved on account of the promise; but that (THE CHILDS) salvation depends on baptism, we do not confess; for when Christ promised the children the kingdom of God, they were not baptized, nor did He baptize them, but He embraced them, and spoke kindly to, or blessed, them. Mark 9:36, 37. Christ also states the reason why the children are acceptable to God, since He sets them as examples for adults, and admonishes us, that we should be like them, for thus He says to His disciples, “Verily I say unto you, except ye be converted, and become as little, children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is the greatest in the, kingdom of heaven” (Matt. 18:3, 4).
Hence, since we are admonished to become as children, it is incontrovertible, that as long as they remain in a state of innocence, God holds them guiltless, and no sin is imputed to them; and although they are of a sinful nature, partaking of the nature of Adam, there still remains something in them which is pleasing to God, namely, innocence and humility; however, they are saved only through the grace of Christ.

In the first place, because we have no command from Christ for it.

Abraham had received a command from the Lord, to circumcise all males on the eighth day. Now, he had received no command respecting females, nor did he follow his own opinion, but, according to the, command of God, caused only the male children to be circumcised; and circumcision was the sign of the covenant which God had established with Abraham; and still, the women were included in the covenant as well as the men.

Speaking on John 3 – Cornelius    – Mark, he says, when he is old;* from which we well perceive, that the Lord did not speak of children. And thereupon Christ says, “Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.”

1559        John Knox returns to Scotland – Mary allows religious freedom

1559    Calvin publishes Institutio  ‘’By predestination we mean the eternal decree of God, by which he has decided in his own mind what he wishes to happen in the case of each individual. For all men are not created on an equal footing, but for some eternal life is preordained, for others eternal damnation…’

Total Depravity – Not as simple as that – Cornelius the Believing Gentile had his prayers come up before God (Acts 10:4).
Unconditional Election – Not true – God so loved the world… that whosoever…(Jn 3:16) and wants all men to repent (2 Peter 3:9).
Limited Atonement – NO –     (Luke 2:10)… Good news for all the people..
(1 Tim 2:5-6)… gave himself as a random for all men..
(1 Jn 2:2)… not for our sins only, but also for the sins of the whole world..
Irresistible Grace – No its not    There are things we must do
(Lk 9:23)… Anyone … must…
Perseverance of Saints    First of all the book of Hebrews is dealing with Apostacy (2:1-3, 3:7-13, 6:4-6, 10:26-31, 12:25)
2Pet 2:20-22 …if they are again entangled.. they are worse off…

1559    Conn O’Neill dies, son Matthew tries to take over, Shane the Proud O’Neill contests the claim goes to see Elizabeth in England and secures Ulster rule but killed in 1567 by subject kings.
Remember 1381 – Niall Ui Neill (980 yrs on) has Armagh party to legitimize his claim to Ulster.

1550’s    Tudor Plantation of Laois and Offally –  King’s and Queen’s county

1560    Ireland’s Parliament tries to make Ireland Protestant by Legislation – doesn’t work

1562    Britain begins its slave trade in Africa. Slave Trade increases significantly with development of plantation colonies of the Americas, especially in Brazil. Other countries involved in the European slave trade included Spain (from 1479); North America (from 1619); Holland (from 1625); France (from 1642); Sweden (from 1647); and Denmark (from 1697).

1567    Shane O’Neill dies in battle and is succeeded by Turlough. Who in turn is supplanted by his rival Hugh O’Neill.

1569        Jacob de Roore, did nevertheless not hesitate to make, with regard to this matter, a salutary and good confession, writing in his bonds and imprisonment at Bruges, in Flanders, the following words, “Furthermore, I confess a Christian baptism, according to the tenor of the Word of God, as Christ commanded His apostles, saying, “Go, and teach all nations, baptizing them,” ….. he says finally, baptism must be received upon faith, for a burial of sin, a washing of regeneration, a covenant of the Christian life, a putting on of the body of Christ, an ingrafting into the true olive tree and vine of Christ, an entrance into the spiritual ark of Noah, of which Christ is the true householder, as is written of Him

1570    Pope ‘Pius V’ deposes Elizabeth First ‘we declare Elizabeth a heretic..’

1571     In documents written up during the reign of King Edward VI and made law during the reign of Elizabeth I we read the following on the beliefs of Anabaptists throughout England,

‘Likewise more errors are heaped up by others in baptism, which some so amazed look at as if they believe that from that external element itself the Holy Spirit emerges, and that his power, his name, and his efficacy, out of which we are renewed, and his grace, and the remaining gifts proceeding out of it, swim in the very fonts of baptism. In a word, they wish our total regeneration to be due to that sacred pit, which inveighs against our senses’..
“Reformatio Legvm Ecclesiasticarvm, ex Avthoritate Primvm Regis Henrici 8. inchoata: Deinde per Regem Edvoardum 6. &c.” 1571 (compiled some years earlier)

This document was passed by the house of Commons.

1572    At this time there was imprisoned at Dort, in Holland, a man of great virtue and piety, named John Wouterss van Kuyck, who, in a letter written to his wife, relates what happened to him in prison on account of the faith. Among other things he speaks of what the bailiff, in his presence, demanded of the judges, namely: That pursuant to the decree of the king, he should be burnt alive at the stake; because he had departed from the Roman Catholic faith, and had (as he said), been rebaptized by the Anabaptists.
Thereupon this pious witness of Jesus answered as he further writes, saying, “Then I replied: I have never departed from the Christian faith; and I know no Anabaptists. I have been baptized only once upon my faith; infant baptism I do not consider a baptism; and when I was a child, I did as a child, as my parents led me.

1575    Smithfield -The name synonymous with Animals and Anabaptists.

Here is a portion of the confession of the Congregation arrested in 1575 during the reign of Elizabeth 1.

7. We believe in and confess also a baptism in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, even as the Lord Jesus Christ commanded us and ordained (Matt. 28:19), and as the apostles practiced (Acts 2:38), and as they wrote with regard to it (Rom. 6:3; I Cor. 12:13; Galatians 3:27; Eph. 4:5; I Pet. 3:21). And we believe that all those that have received this baptism are members of the body of Jesus Christ, in the holy church. I Cor. 12: i 3.

GERRIT VAN BYLER’S (one of the Anabaptist congregation imprisoned in London) wrote the following.

…My severest conflict was, that I had to leave my dear wife and all my little innocent children. After twelve days two of us were informed, that they should have to die by fire on the third day; whereupon on Tuesday, a stake wag erected in Smithfield; but the execution did not take place.
On Wednesday much people were gathered, to behold the death of our two friends; however, they dispersed again. But this was done for the sake of intimidation, to draw our friends and us from the faith. But on Friday, two of our friends, namely, Hendrick Terwoort and Jan Pieterss, were taken from prison and led forth to be offered up.
Jan Pieterss said as he was going out, “This way went all the pious prophets, as also Christ our Saviour, which has been thus from the beginning of days, from the time of Abel.”
These two were put at a stake in Smithfield, and strove through by force, in the midst of the fire, thus becoming a sacrifice before the Lord, which they offered up to Him alive.

1579    Munster (cork) rebels against Queen Eliz.
1580    Munster Irish joined by Spanish and Italians

1583    English defeat the rebels and ‘Plantation of Munster’

1585    Eliz. I – Act against Jesuits

1586    At Ingolstadt, in Bavaria, one Christian Gasteiger, after suffering much onset and opposition from the Jesuits, was, among other things, also assailed in regard to his belief respecting baptism; since he held that it should be administered to none but the believing and penitent. On a certain day, therefore, there came to him, where he was imprisoned, two of that order, saying: That a child had to be baptized or it would be damned. But he contradicted them with arguments and the authority of the holy Scriptures. This belief he held fast to the end, since he died thereupon,

1587    Pope grants Phillip of Spain permission to invade England and restore Catholicism

1588        Defeat of the Spanish armada

1592         Presbyterianism introduced in Scotland by act of Parliament

1592-        We find, that besides a disputation held against some papists who maintained infant baptism, Bartholomew Panten, a pious brother, also left, before his departure from this world, a testament, as a last farewell, to his little daughter; in which he, among other things, admonishes her, how she, when arriving at maturity, should act with regard to this matter, saying, “My dear child, take this to heart, and when you attain your understanding, my paternal request to you is, to join those who fear God, who are by far the least among all people, but who are nevertheless the true congregation and church of God; who practice their rule according to the ordinance of the Lord, and the practice of the apostles, namely, a baptism which is founded upon faith, and must be received as Christ has commanded, and as is written in Matthew.”

1592        Queen Eliz founds Trinity College in Dublin

1593        Eliz. I – Act against Puritans and another against Catholics

1594-1601    Hugh O’Neill (who had plotted the overthrow of his predecessor Turlough) and O’Donnells rebel in Ulster

1598    Henry IV of France makes friends with Huguenots (French protestants)
LOUIS XIV LATER PERSECUTED THEM

1601        Hugh O’Neill goes south to link up with Spanish allies
Mountjoy puts down the rebellion at Kinsale – Hugh escapes capture

A DECREE PUBLISHED BY THOSE OF GRONINGEN AND SNEECK AGAINST THE ANABAPTISTS, A. D. 1601
The burgomasters and the council make known:
Firstly, that the exercise of all other religions than the Reformed is herewith again strictly prohibited.
And if any one be found to allow his house or place to the Anabaptists, contrary to the church regulations of this city, for the purpose of preaching or holding meetings therein, he shall each time be fined ten dollars.
The preachers, as aforesaid, if found to be preaching, shall for each offence be fined ten dollars, or be imprisoned two weeks on water and bread; and when detected in thus preaching the third time, shall be expelled from the city or the jurisdiction of the same.
And all that shall be found attending such preachings or gatherings, shall each time be fined two dollars.
Whoever shall be found to have rebaptized any one, shall be fined twenty dollars; and when detected the second time, shall be imprisoned on water and bread, and expelled as aforesaid.
Again, unbaptized children shall not receive inheritance, according to the city statutes.

In the year of our Lord sixteen hundred and one it occurred that Johann von Steyn, Count of Witgensteyn, Lord of Hamburg, being a member of the Calvinistic Church, purposed to abolish the Romish and Lutheran doctrine, and at the same time laid his hands on the defenseless sheep of Christ, which were contemptuously called Anabaptists, and put them in prison.
Among these are mentioned by name, Huybert op der Straten, Trijnken his wife, Pieter ten Hove, and Lijsken to Linschoten, which latter, as we have learned, was an aged woman of over seventy years.
condemned upon a false accusation (namely, that they had been convicted with the holy Scriptures, which was altogether untrue, and that they would nevertheless continue in their deceptive heresy of Anabaptism, etc
That all their property should be forfeited, and that each should be scourged with rods, to the number of about forty stripes, and moreover be forever banished from the country; which was accordingly done. Thus, say the authors, they stripped these innocent, pious persons, led them around the gallows, and scourged them, spoiled them of their property, and shamefully drove them forth with empty hands, and sent them out of the country.

1603    Puritans address ‘Millenary petition’ to ‘James I’ – asking him to reform the C of E – largely ignored – Puritans get political
1603        Hugh O’Neill surrenders ending 9 years war

1603        Co. Colraine renamed Londonderry – mainly Anglican planting

1603-25    Under James I (1603-1625) the Puritans gained tremendous influence in Parliament and became quite outspoken in their opposition to the absolute monarchy of James and to his religious policy for the people. Under Charles I (after 1625) the Puritan opposition finally became so strong that the nation arose in revolt under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, and in the civil war, which followed, Charles was driven from the throne. The Puritan party gained control of the government for a while (13 years, to be exact). And were often closely identified with Presbyterianism proper because of Scotland’s political ties with Parliament at this time,

1603-1660    Catholic church continues reformation – Ireland is kept in good supply of clergy trained in the 20 or so ‘Irish Colleges’ on the continent

The New River is commenced in London by  King James I

1604/5    Gunpowder plot – extremist Catholics seek to blow up Parliament

1607    Flight of the Earls (HUGH O’Neill etc), shortly after Administrators divide Ireland in 4 provinces. (see also 1641 for the return of the earls)

1609    Johannes Kepler’s book ‘Astronomia Nova’ details the calculations necessary to trace in reverse the exact path of the stars. This was the result of 10 years of investigation. He laid the foundational work necessary for the technology NASA uses today to determine the position of stars and made it possible for scholars to reproduce the stellar events reported at various times in history… including ‘The Star of Bethlehem’.

1610    Chichester complains that English settlers were going to America but Scottish to Ulster (unlike MacDonald’s of the 1400 these Scots were mostly Presbyterian – few Catholics).

1611    Plantation of Ulster – by James I – mostly English and Scottish Protestants – Some Catholics like Sir George Hamilton came to part of the Barony of Strabane and ‘planted popery’ there.

King James Bible

1614    1614, at Zurich, in Switzerland, in the case of a pious witness of the divine truth, named Hans Landis, a teacher and minister of the Gospel of Christ, who had gone up the river Rhine, where he had his place of residence, to feed and refresh with the Word of the Lord some souls that were hungering and thirsting for righteousness.
Taken by Catholic Inquisitors to Zurich, where he was rigorously examined concerning his doctrine, and when he would in no wise desist from his godly purpose or from his faith, they showed in him, that their decree of eighty-four years previous was not yet forgotten, neither had the spirit of it died of old age; for, according to the import of the same, they sentenced him from life to death, and hence, in the month of September of the aforesaid year, 1614, for the sake of the truth he was beheaded as a true follower of Christ. Which they nevertheless would not acknowledge, but pretended, and persuaded the common people, to deceive them, that he was not punished and put to death for his religion, but for his obstinacy and disobedience to the authorities.
In this they evinced their old nature of Pharisees; who, when they condemned to death the innocent Lamb, the Saviour of us all, did not say that it was for His virtuous doctrine by which He converted man to God, but that He had to die for His blasphemy. And this is the nature of all tyrants, to heap upon the innocent, besides sufferings and death, also false accusations.

1619    C of E communion – No sacrifice – change admitted – method of change unknown
1619    Slaves brought from Africa to North America (from 1619); to America (especially Brazil) by the English for previous 57 years from 1562

1620        Pilgrim fathers to New England
1625          Charles I becomes first King of England raised in C. of E.
Trys to impose Arminianism on Scottish church

Holland (from 1625) join the Slave Trade

Spaniard elected as Archbishop of Armagh

Anabaptist Congregations mentions as present in England by Daniel Featley. (see 1645)

1628    Charles I wars against Spain and secures a large amount of cash off Norman Catholic Irish in return for special treatment.
1633    Norman Charley goes back on his word and angers the Irish Norman Catholics

1633    Anti Catholic legislation defeated in Irish Parliament by Norman Irish in spite of the increase of Northern Protestant representatives

1640    Scottish Presbyterians win a war against Charles I and English Normans.
Parliament helps the King on condition of striping him of some of
his powers.

1640 -1660    During this turbulent time there was a sharp increase in England in the practice of book burning and many thousands of books, deemed to be dangerous were burned. (‘Incendiary Texts’ by Hessayon)

1641    The Irish and English parliament had the man responsible for the last 8 years of English government in Ireland executed

34 years after flight of the Earls Owen Roe O’Neill returns as we shall see claiming ascendancy to Northern lands and raises catholic army in Ulster and fights the Battle of Benburb.
Cardinal Rinuccini sent by the Pope to assist him.
So whatever the O’Neill’s were at this time they were loyal Catholics.. loyal to the political power that was the Catholic Church. Fighting Protestants and starting Catholic Armies
… joined by Rory O’More (of Cruthin decent from a Laois tribe) together with Anglo-Norman and Hiberno-English from the pale.
Ulster planters and their families were treated brutally during the years of war that followed this rebellion.
30 years of Catholic Frustration over the economic oppression by a protestant hierarchy created by the English in Ulster and elsewhere leads to the mass murder of Protestants…
Estimates run as high as 250000 Protestants killed in Ulster?
There were certainly thousands of Protestants killed.
At this time Catholics in Ireland owned 3/5 of the land Norman/Gaelic upper class

1642        Civil war in England – Charles v Parliament
British Secularisation is born in the glorious revolution
France joins in the slave trade
Ulster Presbyterian planters were against the king due to his war against the Scottish. Scottish had an army in Ulster to defend the planters.

1643    Solemn League and Covenant – imposed on England (all Englishmen over 18) – ‘that we shall endeavour… the preservations of the reformed religion in the church of Scotland..’ and ‘that we shall endeavour… the extirpation of popery…’

1643        Westminster confession of faith
‘1….the infallible rule in the interpretation of scripture is the scripture itself..’
’10… Elect infants, dying in infancy, are regenerated and saved by Christ through the spirit…
’23 point 2 ‘the just war’
Point 1 ‘civil magistrates may carry the sword’ (point 3) ‘civil magistrates have the authority to take order…’ ‘that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed’
’24:3 Yet it is the duty of Christians to marry only in the Lord And therefore such as profess the true reformed religion should not marry with infidels, papists, or other idolaters:’
’25:6 There is no other head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ Nor can the Pope of Rome, in any sense, be head thereof; but is that Antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that exalts himself, in the Church, against Christ and all that is called God’
29:3 … so that the popish sacrifice of the mass (as they call it) is most abominably injurious to Christ’s one, only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of His elect.

1643        Daniel Featley (1578-1645) was an English theologian who sat in the Westminster Assembly of 1643 (and he had previously been involved in the translation of the King James Version of the Bible.)
He was a persecutor of the anabaptist church and wrote the following and many other things about the London Anabaptists of the 16th and 17th centuries.

“This fire in the reigns of Q. Elizabeth and K. James and our gracious Sovereign, till now, was covered in England under the ashes; or if it brake out at any time, by the care of the Ecclesiasticall and Civil Magistrate, it was soon put out. But of late since the unhappy distractions, which our sins have brought upon us, the Temporall Sword being other ways employed, and the Spirituall locked up fast in the scabberd, this sect, among others, hath so far presumed upon the patience of the State that it hath held weekly Conventicles, re-baptized hundreds of men and women together in the twilight in Rivilets, and some arms of the Thames and elsewhere, dipping them over head and ears.

He wrote this and many other things in his book, ‘The Dippers dipt or the Anabaplists dunckt and plunged over head and ears’ in 1645. When he writes of ‘Rivilets, and some arms of the Thames’ it would refer to places like Deptford Creek near Greenwich or the tributaries we still see between Canada Water and Surrey Water.
Notice how he refers to the time of Queen Elizabeth the First and refers to the sword being used against the cursed ‘fire’ of the heretics. The teaching of the disciples spread like fire! Featley was taken by God soon after writing his persecutory booklet.

The Bow River area also mentioned in 1643 in the document called “An Anabaptist Sermon which was preached at the Re-baptizing of a Brother at the new or holy Jordan, as they call it, near Bow, or Hackney River; together with the manner how they used to perform their Anabaptisticall Ceremonies. London, 1643.”
This was written by an enemy of the church, who refers to the Anabaptists as “they.”
The account says: (origional Olde English)

“Some say our Religion is cleane contrary to the Protestant profession, but such are cleane out of the way, but if we should be persecuted againe by bishops as formerly we have bin, and would run cleane out of England unto Amsterdam, but we are all cleane people, full of purity of the Spirit; our sins are but motes in God’s eyes, but our brothers sinnes are beams that have so put out the sight of his Divine justice, that He cannot or will not see our small iniquities.”

“For it is impossible to wash them white or cleane; but wee that are brethren of the elect; we may wash ourselves in a River from the spots of our Carnality in every River, as Bow River, Hackney River, and other Rivers are to us a cleane Jordan, wherein we may baptize one another as we meane to do this day our late lost brother.”

Cromwell’s war victories begin.

1645    Daniel Featley (as with 1643) writes more against the English Anabaptists saying they had plagued his neighbourhood of South London for some 20 years previous described them as a ‘new leven’ and that they taught that ‘baptism ought to be received by none, but such as can give a good account of their faith; and in case any have been baptised in their infancy, they ought to be rebaptised after they come to years of discretion, before they are to be admitted to the church of Christ’.

1646    O’Neill (back from Rome 4 years ago) wins battle against the Scottish Army.

1647    Charles agrees to Scottish takeover and trial Presbyterianism but Scottish invasion of 1648 failed and he was executed in 1649
Sweden joins in the slave trade

1648    End of 30 year war in Germany, Switz. And Holland – ‘Peace of Westphalia’ – Catholic Lutheran and Calvinist are OK but nobody else.

1649    Charles beheaded
Cromwell lands in Ireland and storms Drogheda, wins war returns in 1650 to England.

1652    Act of Settlement – Cromwell’s Parliament – Forfeiture of Catholic land in Ulster, Leinster and Munster – Irish POW’s allowed to join foreign armies 30,000 approx. – Catholic priests transported to west Indies – Presbyterians of Antrim and down transported south – Plan was to migrate all Catholics West of the Shannon but in effect all Catholic landowners went west. Those that stayed forsook their land to Protestants.
A Protestant upper class was created in Ireland

1653  In june Cromwells ‘Nominated Assembly’ took control of the reigns of Power. It was composed 2/3 of religious men picked for their good reputation who had been suggested to Cromwell by various denominations including Anabaptists. Within 6 months the conservative elements abdicated to Cromwell out of fear of what laws may be voted in by the religious other members!

Cromwell’s Protectorate after 1653, the nations of England Scotland and Ireland were ruled by a single government for the first time in British history.

1655    Cromwell’s son Henry sent to rule Ireland

1661    After Cromwell’s death, and civil unrest, Charles II was made king on the condition that there was religious toleration. Acts nevertheless passed against Jesuits and Quakers.

Charles began a period of land restoration after which little more than one fifth was again in Catholic hands. A catholic bishop denounced the settlement as repugnant to God and Nature.

1661    The Corporation Act – Charles II made public officials swear… – ‘I hold that there is no obligation upon me … from the oath commonly called the Solemn league and Covenant…” but also swore ‘provided also no person be elected… that shall not have within one year .. taken the sacrament of the Lord’s supper according to the rites of the church of England’

1661    Act of Conformity’ – Every minister in a parish church to conform to an Episcopalian church and the prayer book.

1662    Return of prelacy – CoE hierarchy – Presbyterians not very happy

1665    War with Holland over shipping rights in Channel proceeded by seizing of New Amsterdam (new York), also great plague
1666        Great fire of London
Uprising in Galloway 100’s of covenanters fined tortured imprisoned deported murdered raped or robbed

1667 Treaty with Dutch (over 65 shipping), Charles est. racecourse at
Newmarket!

1668    C. Bro James II and his wife secretly convert to Catholic.

1669    Act of Indulgence for Galloway covenanters – only 4 ministers subscribe
1670    Black Act – Field preaching illegal – Scottish parliament

1671    James II wife dies and he starts looking for a new one straight away

1672    Charles II carries through ‘Declaration of Indulgence’ permitting Catholic worship.
Bro. J. Confesses he is Catholic.

1672 Domhall was Rector of Clonmany Parish in Inishowen.
His brother was a Catholic Priest.
The sister went on to be the first woman Quaker preacher in Irish History

1673    DOI repealed – ‘Test Act’, for civil servants ‘no transubstantiation’ – no C in office,

Public opinion goes against Charles and so in a Peace Treaty between Charles, France and Holland, Charles gives James’s daughter, his niece Mary (14 yr old protestant daughter of his confessed catholic brother James) to William III of Orange

James II marries 15 year old Italian Princess

1678    Quakers – XII concerning Baptism… and this baptism is a pure and spiritual thing, to wit, the baptism of the spirit and fire, by which we are buried with him, that being washed and purged from our sins, we may walk in newness of life… as to the baptism of infants it is a mere human tradition..’

1678    Katherine Norton (nee McLoughlin) (of Colraine) a Quaker preacher preaching in Gaelic in Lurgan
1672 Her Brother Domhall was Rector of Clonmany Parish in Inishowen

1679-1685    Further persecution of the Presbyterian covenanters especial in 84/85 due to the publication of ‘apologetical declaration’

1682    Louis XIV draws up Galician Declaration with Protesting Catholic Bishops ‘we declare that kings and sovereigns are not, by God’s command, subject to any ecclesiastical power in temporal matters, that they cannot be deposed …by the heads of the church…’

1685        James II becomes King (confessed catholic since ‘72)
Makes Protestant brother-in-law Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Charles makes deathbed confession

1686    James makes Catholic Richard Talbot General of forces in Ireland
Talbot removes Protestants from the Irish Army and Administration, stalls re-election of C. o. I. Bishops and grants money to Catholics.

1687/8    James II carries through ‘Declaration of Indulgence’ permitting Catholic worship, protesters imprisoned. 88 all Irish judges catholic
1688    William of Orange invited to England by ‘Bishop of London’ to protect Mary’s succession to the throne. He accepted, as a Catholic England would have allied with France, William invades; James agrees to concessions including dismissal of Catholics from office but has to run away as everyone is after him, to his cousin Louis XIV in France. Pope Innocent XI is fired up and supports William.
7th Dec – Some C.o.I. of Derry want to admit the King James’s troops. Others do not, probably due to James converting Charles – King James’s troops were coming to replace Mountjoy’s protestant regiment. Presbyterians a little more reluctant due to what happened in the 40’s when the king fought the covenanters. Apprentice boys closed the gates to Kings Antrim Redshank!

1689        William offered joint Sovereignty
Parliament passes Mutiny Act – Army to obey them in peacetime
Civil list Act – restricting royal expenditure
James lands in Ireland, convenes parliament and repeals the Cromwellian land settlement. Also decrees liberty of Conscience

1690    June – William lands and meets with Ministers from COI and Presby from siege. Presbyt’s claim favour due to their loyalty. COI Rev Walker contradicts them greatly but the King does not hear this and as a reward for their loyalty he doubles their salary from 600 (Charles II) to 1200 pounds per year.
‘Battle of the Boyne’, Seamus and Liam do battle.
Pope Alexander VIII has Te Deums sung in Austria and Spain and candlit procession in Rome – war won in 91.

Qualifications [from the Order’s handbook]: “An Orangeman should… strenuously oppose the fatal errors and doctrines of the Church of Rome, and scrupulously avoid countenancing any act or ceremony of Popish Worship; he should by all lawful means, resist the ascendancy of that Church, it encroachments and the extension of its power…”

1691 Treaty of Limerick – Irish surrender – 14,000 soldiers allowed to leave for France.
Forerunners of the ‘wild geese’. Their property was confiscated and Catholic land diminished to about 1/7 of the total.

1692    Sir George Hamilton – Planted in Barony of Strabane plants popery in Ulster bringing priests and Jesuits from Scotland.

1694        Bank of England est. to organize war money

1697        Denmark joins in the slave trade
Banishment Act – Catholic Bishops and Clergy kicked out of England. About 1000 allowed to remain and are tolerated so long as they preach submission to Authority. In many cases their presence was illegal and this presented an obvious enigma.

1699    Ireland’s export trade in manufactured woolen goods destroyed by restrictions imposed by Westminster via Dublin Parliament.

1702        William dies, Mary’s sister Anne takes over

1704        Illegal for Catholics to buy land

1714        Anne dies

GERMAN BRITAIN
1714    George I takes over – cant speak English – brings Handel to England 1715

1719        Dissenters permitted to worship in America
1725-1729    Exodus of Ulster Pres. To US

1727-1760    son George II ruled – 1759 James Wolfe captures Quebec
Wolfe allegedly dies in arms of the able seaman who was Thomas Campbell’s Grandfather (see 1807)

1740-1741    Exodus of Ulster Pres. To US

1747    Afghanistan’s heterogeneous groups were not bound into a single political entity until the reign of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who in 1747 founded the monarchy that ruled the country until 1973. Apart for a 30-year gap which we will look at soon.

1756-63    7 years war in Ireland – Irish ‘White Boys’ v state in Munster – ‘Hearts of Oak’ and ‘Hearts of Steel’ in Ulster

1757    Ahmad Shah of Afghanistan declared an Islamic holy war against the Marathas in India and killed a lot of Indians

1760-1820    George III grandson of George II, 1798 Irish Rebellion, 1801 Act of Union UK and G. goes against Catholic emancipation act, 1809 duel Lord Canning Garvagh,

1762    Ahmad Shah of Afghanistan massacred thousands of Sikh inhabitants, in an attack on the Punjab to put down a Sikh rebellion

1763    Germ Warfare used by the British Army to exterminate Indigenous people of what is now called the United States of America.
Quotes from Amherst and Bouquet

1771    In 1771, three disgruntled brothers raised their standard in Tay Son village, west of Qui Nhon, and ended up ruling the whole country. Their Tay Son rebellion gained broad support for its message of equal rights, justice and liberty, and by the middle of 1788 had overthrown both the Trinh and Nguyen lords.

1775    While the revolution takes Vietnam by storm America gears up for the war of Independence to fight for Independence and self-determination free from the superpower that was Britannia

1778    5% of Irish land in Catholic hands
France declares war on England (over American interests)
Relief Act passed in England granting Catholics more rights. Resisted in Ireland, but passed. Irish Volunteers mostly protestant form to guard against French Invasion

1781    Americans beat the British at Yorktown… New York

1782    Ulster volunteers adopt resolution, favoring relaxation of penal laws
And home rule more separate from Westminster

1783        Change in British (Norman) Government in W.
Volunteers gather in Dublin and propose more representative parliament – refused

1784    W. specifically renounces its claim to legislate for Ireland. Bank of Ireland and Irish P.O. founded
1784        Dublin starts Catholic Emancipation movement
1784        Sectarian warfare in Ulster.

1789        French Revolution – change by force.

1790        Methodists separate from C.of E after Wesley’s death

1790’s    Abolitionist movement [to abolish slavery] gains strength in England, and later in the U.S.

1791        Founding of Society of United Irishmen, Tone McCracken
1792        ‘The Northern Star Established’
‘Catholic Committee’ (of Dublin businessmen) put pressure on Irish Government for repeal of Penal Laws

1792-1815    Napoleonic wars rage throughout Europe

1793    Relief Act penal laws mostly removed – not in Parliament. – Volunteering suppressed

1795        Cave Hill meeting ‘brits out’, Catholic ‘defenders’ attack ‘peep o’day boys’

1795/6    Orange society founded (or at least revived), Government ‘Yeomanry’ force started mostly Orangemen – 70,000 in 90 lodges

1796        14000 French set out to invade Ireland
Storms blow them all off course

1797        Government disarms north – Marshal Law

1798        Rebellion – United Irishmen 500,000 100,000 from Ulster 2/3 Presbyterian.
1801        Act of Union – Ireland part of United Kingdom
Estimated population of Ireland 5 million

1802    One of the few Nguyen lords to survive the Tay Son rebellion in Vietnam was Prince Nguyen Anh who, with the help of a French bishop, Pigneau de Behaine, raised an army and regained the throne in 1802 as Emperor Gia Long.

With the assistance of the Catholic bishop of Adran, Monsignor Pigneau de Béhaine and his mercenaries, Nguyen Anh, the last survivor of the Nguyen family defeated the Tây Son, the Peasants of the West, and unifying the country by exercising his sole authority over the whole Vietnamese territory from the border of China to the gulf of Siam. He also gave Hu its splendor and greatness again as the capital city of Vietnam. He became thus the first emperor known as ” Gia Long”.

Daniel Morgan died in 1802 after having contributed greatly both to the defeat of the  British regime in the US and previous to that having contributed greatly to the death of many Native American Indians in the Indian Wars. Some sources say he was an Irish Catholic Immigrant who converted to Presbyterianism.

1807-1809    Campbell’s leave for America

1808    Dr William Drennan the United Irishman of Belfast writes in the ‘Belfast Monthly Magazine’  “Be Britons with all your souls and forget your father called himself an Irishman’

1809    On June 7, 1809, Shuja ruler of Afghanistan signed a Treaty of Friendship with the British, which included a clause stating that he would oppose the passage of foreign troops through his territories. This agreement, the first Afghan pact with a European power, stipulated joint action in case of Franco-Persian aggression against Afghan or British dominions.

1820-1830    George IV (son of G. III),

1821        Estimated population of Ireland 6.5 million (up 1.5 million in 20 years)

1823    Daniel O’Connell founds Catholic Association. Using a network of Clergy he collected one penny per month from every member

1825    Imperial Russia produced 3,500 tons of oil in 1825 and doubled its output by mid-century

1826    Daniel O’Connell is voted in as an MP illegally in Clare by droves of Catholics lead by Clergymen from all over the county. Catholics 2057 votes to the protestant 982

National budgets amalgamated in E + I.

Dost Mohammad takes over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. The Great Game set in motion the confrontation of the British and Russian empires–whose spheres of influence moved steadily closer to one another until they met in Afghanistan.

1829         Catholic emancipation act law

1830-1837    William IV (son of G. III), National Police Administration takes power from Orange Order

1831    Phillip Sheridan born in Cavan who later states ‘the only good Indians I ever saw were dead ones’. The English of 1763 were not the only Indian killers in America. Many other Irish fought in the Indian wars including Daniel Morgan. These wars were where he learned how to kill and he became quite good at it too as has been widely reported.

1832-33    British abolish slavery in West Indies.

1836        Grand lodge dissolved after john Hume’s attack

In 1836 Dost Mohammad’s (afghan ruler) contacted Lord Auckland, the new British governor general in India, for help in dealing with the Sikhs. With this letter, Dost Mohammad formally set the stage for British intervention in Afghanistan. At the heart of the Great Game lay the willingness of Britain and Russia to subdue, subvert, or subjugate the small independent states that lay between them.

1837-1901    Victoria (niece of William IV) – didn’t like sir John Conroy, married 1st cousin Albert (German- ‘Saxe-Coburg Gotha’), after his death liked the Scot Mr Brown… Billy Connelly

1838        Archaeologists find Hezekiah’s tunnel (see also the ‘siloam inscription 1880)

1839-1842    Amistad Revolt (on which the 1997 Steven Spielberg film was based) was”a shipboard uprising off the coast of Cuba that carried itself, inadvertently but fatefully, to the United States–where the Amistad Captives set off an intense legal, political, and popular debate over the slave trade, slavery, race, Africa, and ultimately America itself”

1839    Responding to increased Russian espionage in Kabul An army of British and Indian troops invade Afghanistan by late March 1839.  In August 1839, after almost thirty years, the Brits assisted Shuja enthronement in Kabul. A ruler who had previously signed the friendship agreement and subsequently been deposed by a competitor

1840    O’Connell forms National Repeal Association backed by Archbishop of Tuam to repeal the ‘Act of Union’ Protestant ‘Young Ireland’ movement also supports McHale of Tuam and bishops insist Queens Uni. Catholics be taught by Catholics – Protestant support dwindles

1841    Estimated population of Ireland 8 million (up 1.5 million in 20 years) 2/3 population depended on agriculture
1842        The ‘Nation’ weekly newspaper founded to assist Connell
Blight hits potato crop of the eastern seaboard of Canada and US

British try to leave Afghanistan and are slaughtered and their puppet king assassinated
Russians have advanced to the Afghan borders.

1843    Daniel O’Connell holds 40 mass meetings some of which are estimated in 100.000s

1845-1849    Potato Famine hits England and Ireland 1,000000 die 1,000000 emigrate
Compounded by one of the worst winters in living memory 46/47

1845    US troops conduct a mission in Vietnam to rescue a French Bishop being held hostage.

1847    French Navy bombard Vietnamese city in response to Persecution of French Missionaries

1848    Young Ireland Rising (group of men associated with the ‘Nation’ newspaper)

One of whom was John Mitchell (solicitor from Co. Down – most ready to advocate force).. Arrested.. Tasmania… Escaped… Southern States… ‘I consider Negro slavery here the best state of existence for the Negro’. Not alone amongst so called FREEDOM FIGHTERS.

1849    Nearly 1000000 Irish were in workhouses about 90% through eviction

1851        Campbell book 6 Chapter 4
From the preceding documents, a mere sample of what may be gleaned from the pages of ecclesiastical history, the observant reader will readily see how much credit is due to the Princeton professor as a lecturer on ecclesiastical history, when he says, “It is an undoubted fact that the people known in ecclesiastical history under the name of ‘Anabaptists,’ who arose in Germany in the year 1552, were the very first body of people in the whole Christian world who rejected the baptism of infants on the principles now adopted by the Anti-Pedobaptist body.” (Page 32.) Unless there be some premeditated oracular ambiguity in this expression, which it would be uncharitable to suppose, one could not easily make an assertion more unjustifiable or insupportable, as the documents I have given fully show, and to which many more might be added.

1854    Immaculate Conception – the virgin Mary was, in the first instant of her conception , preserved untouched by any taint of original guilt… if any shall presume …. to think anything contrary… have suffered shipwreck concerning the faith..’

1850’s        Photographs appear in Irish History …

1854    The first modern oil refineries were built by Ignacy Łukasiewicz near Jasło (then in the dependent Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria in Central European Galicia), Poland from 1854–56

1855    The 1855 Treaty of Peshawar reopened diplomatic relations, bet Britain and Afghan.

1856        The first large oil refinery opened at Ploieşti, Romania in 1856.

1858    Founded of IRB in Dublin and NYC, Fenian movement rejected pressure from the clergy and recruited solely amongst the working class.

The French begin to occupy Vietnam under Napoleon 111 replacing a Kingdom

1859     The first oil drilling in the United States began in 1859, when oil was successfully drilled in Titusville, Pennsylvania. In the first quarter of the 20th century, the United States overtook Russia as the world’s largest oil producer.

1863    Emancipation of slaves in the United States in midst of Civil War.

1864    it is error to say ‘that in the present day, it is no longer necessary that the catholic religion be held as the only religion of the state to the exclusion of all other modes of worship; whence it has been wisely provided by the law, in some countries nominally Catholic…’ (see 1935)

1867    Fenian uprising aided by arms and officers trained in the US civil war.
Put down but IRB reorganized and remained in training until the 1916 uprising.

1869        Gladstone’s ‘Church Act’ disestablishes C.o.I.

1870        Papal Infallability

Isaac Butt (unionist turned nationalist) forms Home Government Association

1872    the British had signed an agreement with the Russians in which the latter agreed to respect the northern boundaries of Afghanistan

1873        Home Rule League
1874        Butt leads revamped Home Rule Party in Westminster

1870-1880’s    Parnell (IRB) moulds Irish Parliamentary into powerful force
Revival of Orange Order

1870        Gladstone’s ‘Land Act’

1878        Sher Ali tried, but failed, to keep out Russian envoys that arrived in Kabul on July 22
Britain invades Afghan. After its emissaries are refused entry.

1879        Europeans “partition” West Africa (to 1890s).

Afghan Leader relinquished control of Afghan foreign affairs to the British. British representatives were installed in Kabul and other locations, British control was extended to the Khyber and Michni passes, and the Afghanistan ceded various frontier areas to Britain.

Karl Benz, working independently, was granted a patent for his internal combustion engine, a reliable two-stroke gas engine.

1881        Gladstone’s Land Act – fair rents – landlords start to sell land to tenants

1884        GAA founded – no foreign games
1885        Resurgence of Catholicism – Home Rule Rome rule

Map of “Africa” – 1885  from Black’s General Atlas of the World:  While this map of Scottish cartographer John Bartholomew was being printed in Edinburgh, “representatives of the major European powers were gathered in Berlin poring over similar maps and drawing lines on them—lines that would become  the political boundaries for colonial empires that would dominate African history for the next 75 years.”
The Berlin Conference: Intense rivalries among Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, and Portugal for additional African territory, and the ill-defined boundaries of their various holdings, instigate the Berlin conference. Here the powers of Europe, together with the United States, defined their spheres of influence and laid down rules for future occupation on the coasts of Africa and for navigation of the Zaire and Niger rivers. No African states were invited to the Berlin conference, and none signed these agreements. Whenever possible, Africans resisted decisions made in Europe, but revolts in Algeria, in the western Sudan, in Dahomey, by the Matabele (Ndebele) and Shona, in Ashantiland, in Sierra Leone, and in the Fulani Hausa states were eventually defeated.

1885 – 1896 British/Soviet Commissions heckled over the Afghan borders

The British motor industry started when Frederick Simms patented a design for an internal combustion engine. 1896 he founded the Daimler Motor Company there which made Britain’s first serial production car.

1885        Ashbourne Act – state aided land purchase for tenant farmers

France wins war with China over Vietnam.

1886        Gladstone favors Home Rule – home rule bill – unionists not happy
Orange Order expands to become mainline protestant

1887        Cambodia becomes French

1890’s         Europeans “partition” East Africa.

1891    Pope adopts Socialist agenda – ‘public authority can decide more accurately what is permissible… hereditary transmission must be kept intact.. the level of wages must be adjusted… Religious socialism and Christian socialism are contradictions.. no one can be at once a true catholic and a socialist’

1893        Gaelic League – Irish language
Gladstone favors Home Rule – home rule bill – unionists not happy
Rioting in Belfast – New lease of life for the Orange Order

Laos is added to French Indochina now including Vietnam and Cambodia

1650 –1900    Height of Atlantic SlaveTrade: Between the years 1650 and 1900, historians estimate that at least 28 million Africans were forcibly removed from central and western Africa as slaves (but the numbers involved are controversial). A human catastrophe for Africa, the world African Slave Trade was truly a “Holocaust.”

At the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Russia’s output of oil, almost entirely from the Apsheron Peninsula, accounted for half of the world’s production and dominated international markets.

1901-1910    Edward VII (V. son)

1903    Wyndham Act – turns Ireland into a nation of owner-occupiers

1905    Sinn Fein…

1910-1936    George V (E.Son), warned cousin (Kaiser Wilhein II) in lead up to WW1 England would fight, Easter rising 1916, Anglo Irish Treaty 1921, 1st Christmas day broadcast 1932,

UK vehicle production was 14,000 units.

1911        21,000 families in Dublin lived in single room tenements

Ho Chi Min departs Vietnam for Europe

Chinese terminate ‘border Sacrifice’ to ‘ShangDi’. See (2600BC)

1912    Ulster Unionist Council – Solemn League and Covenant “all means… necessary…” 218,000 some say 500,000 protestants –

1913     UVF formed
Great Dublin Lockout – 20,000 unionized workers locked out (a different type of unionism)
8-month dispute follows number of working Dubliners brutally killed two of whom were Byrnes, one on hunger strike who left a wife and six children.
Citizen Army established to protect strikers

1914        Britain declares war on Germany (29 years after the Berlin Conference)
Ireland has five armies.
1. Official forces, 2. Ulster Volunteers, 3. Irish Volunteers, 4. Citizen Army, 5.I.R.B.

Afghan. Remains neutral apart from swindling a heap of money off the Germans !!

1916        Easter Rising
April 24th 1916 Poblacht na hEireann
The Provisional Government of the Irish Republic To the People of Ireland
The Republic guarantees civil and religious liberty, equal rights and equal opportunities to all its citizens, and declares its resolve to pursue the happiness and prosperity of the whole nation and of all its parts, cherishing all the children of the nation equally, and oblivious of the differences carefully fostered by an alien government, which have divided a minority from the majority in the past

1917        Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 – Russia

‘The Balfour Declaration’ in 1917 to “favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people while respecting the rights of existing non-Jewish communities”.

British Congregationalists church accepts women ministers

1919        First Dail Eireann
1919-1920    War of Independence – IRA v Brits and B & T
Non-Gaelic speakers sacked from civil service – protestant exodus
Anti catholic literature banned

Amanullah of Afghan. attacked the British in May 1919 in two thrusts, taking them by surprise, effectively taking back control over Af. Foreign Policy and reopens diplomatic relations with USSR.. Amanullah sent an emissary to Moscow in 1919; Lenin received the envoy warmly and responded by sending a Soviet representative to Kabul to offer aid to Amanullah’s government.

1920    Government of Ireland Act – Ulster unionists granted Home rule and foundation of partition.

Ho Chi Min assists in founding the French National Communist Party

Palestinian Muslims Riot in Jerusalem (strongly opposed to Jewish immigration under the British mandate and employed anti-Semitic demagogery claiming that Jews threatened the Haram).

By the 1920s, oil fields had been established in many countries including Canada, Poland, Sweden, the Ukraine, the United States, and Venezuela.

1921        Creation of Northern Ireland
NI RC’s boycott new parliament
King George V ‘the German’ comes over to open it up!

Russians and Afghans sign Treaty of Friendship
introduction of a few Soviet planes into Afghanistan.
Amanullah maintained contacts with Indian nationalists and gave them asylum in Kabul,
British responded by refusing to address Amanullah as “Your Majesty,”

1921-22    Vicious sectarian violence in NI & IRA campaign
232 people killed 1000 wounded 3 mil property

Palestinian Muslims Riot in Jerusalem (strongly opposed to Jewish immigration and employed anti-Semitic demagogery claiming that Jews threatened the Haram).

1922        Creation of Irish Free State
1922-23    Civil War – Free State Government win over IRA
USING Internment

1925    The ‘Nuzi tablets’ discovered (1600-1350 BC)

1929        abolition of proportional representation – designed to defeat splinter groups

Palestinian Muslims Riot in Jerusalem (strongly opposed to Jewish immigration and employed anti-Semitic demagogery claiming that Jews threatened the Haram).

The TPC was renamed the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC).

1930–36    Excavation of Jericho corroborators biblical account.

1934        Craigavon – “Protestant state”
1935        Dev “Ireland a Catholic nation”

1936        Edward VIII – abdicated – Mrs Simpson

1936 – 1939    The British Peel Commission advised that the western part of Palestine be divided between Arabs and Jews. The Arabs then launched the Great Uprising against British rule in Palestine. More than 5,000 Arabs, 400 Jews, and 200 Britons killed

1937        Dev – New “Catholic Constitution” – articles 2 & 3

Carsons’s Unionism

Jack White and Sir Roger Casement oppose Irish Unionist position – Ballymoney

J.W. helps found Civic League and Citizen Army

1936-1952    George VI (son of G.V)

1939        Internment AGAIN

Second WW

1940        Afghanistan expels Germans and declares its absolute neutrality.

1941        Ho Chi Minh returns to Vietnam and forms the League for the Independence of
Vietnam which becomes known as the Viet Minh. Japan occupies Vietnam. The Viet Minh resist Japanese occupation with the help of the United States and China.

1944    The Viet Minh is supported by the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS and forerunner to the CIA) with arms and funds.

1945    Ian Paisley Leaves College – accepts call to Lower Ravenhill Rd Mission – later joins orange order – appointed Chaplin to the junior Orangemen. – and baptizes lots of babys

Japan invades Vietnam displacing the French. Later that year defeated and after some infighting involving the British, Chinese, French, Vietnam gets independence.

The Atom bomb is dropped and 66.000 Japanese die in one second
Another Bomb dropped and another 39.000 Japanese die in one second

1946        Bord na Mona a success

Ho Chi Min appeal’s to the US for the last time for moral support, which has now been completely withdrawn.

The population of Palestine had increased tremendously – from the
750,000 of the 1922 census to almost 1,850,000 at the end of 1946 – an
increase of nearly 250 per cent. During this period the Jewish population had
soared from 56,000 after the First World War to 84,000 in 1922 to 608,000 in
1946, an increase of about 725 per cent

1947    The Superior Oil Company constructed the first offshore oil platform off the Gulf Coast of Louisiana.

1948        May 14, the Jewish population declared independence as the State of Israel.
More than 700,000 Jews, with their property ransacked in deadly riots across the world, were soon forced to flee for their lives. They would flee to Europe, the United States, and most importantly, to Israel. The populations of Jews living in Arab countries dropped drastically. For example, in Algeria, there were 130,000 Jews living there in 1948 but not one in 2001. In Egypt there were 75,000 Jews in 1948 there but only 200 in 2001. Of the Arab countries, Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen, there were a total of 754,000 Jews present in 1948. However, in January 2001, there were only a total of 7,900 Jews reported living there. (Data as reported by the American Jewish Committee)

1949        Republic of Ireland

Afghan. Skirmishes with Pakistan

1950        Assumption of Mary 15th Aug

Vietnam splits in two to accommodate the factions at war with one another since the Japanese defeat 5 years previous.
Newly est. Peoples Republic of China and Russia recognizes HO Chi Min in North V.
US, Britain and Australia recognize the South
May 8 – US announces military and economic aid to the pro- French regimes of
Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. US aid was to jump from an initial $10 million to
exceeding $1,000 million by 1954, 78% of the French war bill, even though all
concerned conceded that the war could not be won.
Napalm is used for the first time against Viet Min forces in the North. Viet Min concentrate of riding the North of French Fortifications.

July 1950 Afghan. signed a major agreement with the Soviet Union securing aid and commerce.

Britain provided 52% of the world’s exported vehicles

1951        ‘mother and child health scheme’ no state subsidies of single mums please
Ireland says NO to single mums
Proposer leaves government – similar scheme gets through
US Senator John Fitzgerald. Kennedy (future US President). visits Vietnam and
declares, “in Indo-China we have allied ourselves to the desperate effort of the
French regime to hang on to the remnants of an empire”.

1952        Elizabeth II crowned.

1954    Beginning of 1954 – American aid to France’s military campaign now totals $US1.1 Billion. Australia gives small amounts of military and economic aid. France has lost 74,000 troops with another 190,000 bogged down.

August – Australian Prime Minister – Robert. G Menzies, in Parliament
“It is therefore foolish, superficial, and dangerous to speak of the conflict in
the world as a contest between two economic systems, capitalism and communism. Nor can the cynics dispose of it as an old-fashioned struggle for military or physical power, with territory and resources as the prizes of victory. It is desperately important that the world should see this as a moral contest, a
battle for the spirit of man. There can be no easy or enduring compromise
between peoples who affirm the existence of a divine authority and the
compulsion of a spiritual law and those others who see nothing beyond an
atheistic materialism”.

The last French Troops leave Hanoi in North Vietnam.

October 23 – President Dwight D. Eisenhower advises S.V. Pres. Diem that the US will provide assistance directly to South Vietnam, instead of channelling it through French authorities.

1955    US aid directed to South Vietnam

The Viet Cong form as a Guerrilla organization in Vietnam wanting reunification to one country again. US begins sending Military advisors to the Southern Government to combat the Nationalists. Escalated into what we now know as the Vietnam war.

May 16 – The United States agrees to furnish military aid to Cambodia, which
becomes an independent state on 25 September.

President Daoud of Afghanistan he received approximately US$25 million of military material From the Soviet Union to help against Pakistan. USSR builds 3 airfields in return.

1956-62    IRA border campaign
Internment

1956    April 28 – An American Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) takes over the training of South Vietnamese forces.

1957    GHANA BECOMES FIRST INDEPENDENT BLACK STATE IN AFRICA under Kwame Nkrumah through Gandhi-inspired rallies, boycotts, and strikes, forcing the British to transfer power over the former colony of the Gold Coast.

1959    July 8 – Communist South Vietnamese wound American advisers during an attack on Bien Hoa.

President of Afghanistan Daoud’s proceeded cautiously on the question of the emancipation of women. At the fortieth celebration of national independence in 1959, the wives of his ministers appeared unveiled in public at his behest. When religious leaders protested, he challenged them to cite a single verse of the Quran specifically mandating veiling. When they continued to resist, he jailed them for a week.

1960        May 5 – MAAG strength is increased from 327 to 6850 members.

Gaius Caesar inscription discovered in Greece linking him to ‘The [lost] war of Varus’ which has since helped to date the birth of Christ. (see 1 BC)

1961        January 20. John Fitzgerald Kennedy takes the office of President of the United
States of America.

April 10 – First defoliation test mission is flown in Vietnam – Agent Orange

May 5. President Kennedy at a press conference declares that if necessary the
use of US forces would be considered “to help South Vietnam resist communist
pressures”.

May 11-1 3 -Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson . visits South Vietnam for talks
with Diem.

October 11 – McNamara’s report to President Kennedy

December 31. US military personnel total 3,200.

Suicide become legal in the UK – suicide bombers – only the bomber part is wrong…

1962        IRA ceasefire

7 Feb – American military strength in South Vietnam reaches 4,000, with the arrival of two additional Army aviation units.

Nov 15. President John F.Kennedy announces the withdrawal of 1,000 advisers for December, of what was meant to be an overall reduction of US Forces in Vietnam.
Nov 22. John F Kennedy is assassinated at Dallas, Texas. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson becomes President.

1964    Nelson Mandela, on trial for sabotage with other ANC leaders before the Pretoria Supreme Court, delivers his eloquent and courageous Speech from the Dock before he is imprisoned for the next 25 years in the notorious South African prison Robben Island.

Excavation of Ebla (see 2250 BC)

Ecumenical conference held in Ireland attended by the ‘four main churches’

March
US Secretary of Defence McNamara .visits South Vietnam and is convinced that if South Vietnam falls the rest of South East Asia will follow. He returns to
Washington and recommends increased aid to South Vietnam.
March 17- US President Johnson. orders an increase in US aid to South Vietnam of $60 million. The President also orders the US Joint Chiefs of Staff to begin planning retaliatory air strikes against North Vietnam, to be launched on 72 hrs notice.

November 2 – The VC .make a surprise attack on Ben Hoa, killing five Americans, wounding 76 and destroying 6 B-57 Canberra Bombers.

Nov 4 – President Johnson is re-elected.

Dec 31 – US strength is now 23,000.

Afghan king takes control after resignation of president Doaud due to economic depression due to war with Pakistan. He installs a new constitution and a new democratic government including 6 women
Article 69 defined laws as a resolution passed by the houses of parliament and signed by the king, with sharia to be used when no such law existed.

1965    On January 1, 1965, the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) was founded.

1965/66    VC11
Document 64 –
Chapt 11 – The community of Mankind
The word made flesh and Human Solidarity – Section 32
In Christ’s preaching he clearly outlined an obligation on the part of the sons of God to treat each other as brothers.
The church, in which everyone as members one of the other would render mutual service in the measure of the different gifts bestowed on each.
This solidarity must be constantly increased

Chapter 4 – What the church offers to Society
The church calls upon its members and upon all men to put aside, in the family spirit of the children of God, all conflict between nations and races and to consolidate legitimate human organization.

mid sixties    Most former European colonies in Africa gain independence and European colonial era effectively ends. NEOCOLONIALISM, however, plagues many new African nations: Western economic and cultural dominance, and African leaders’ and parties’ corruption intensify the multiple problems facing the new nations. Colonial rule does not teach subjects how to rule themselves. Indigenous ethnic groups often feel stronger loyalty to traditional cultural ties and geographical homelands than to the arbitrary political boundary lines, first drawn by European colonizers, of independent African states.

1965        Nationalists agree to sit in Stormont parliament.

March 2 – Operation “Rolling Thunder”, the sustained bombing of North Vietnam commences.

March 8 – First US combat troops arrive at Da Nang, Vietnam.

May – US strength now at 82,000.

Nov 21 – US strength now at 181,000.

1966    Many books allowed into republic for first time since anti catholic literature banned in 1921
Charlie Haughey becomes Taoiseach

March 8 – Prime Minister Harold Holt announces the formation of a Task Force for Vietnam consisting of two infantry battalion with combat support. An increase to 4,500 troops.

Oct 30 – 31. Op “Bundaberg” The RAAF lose their first helicopter in Vietnam, supporting 5 RAR. 2,000 Filipino combat troops arrive in South Vietnam.
All the Way With LBJ.
October 21 – Lyndon Baines Johnson, Visits Canberra

Dec 22 – Australian Government announces a further military increase to Vietnam that will bring Australia’s commitment to 6,300.

Dec 31 – US Military Forces now at 385,000.

1967        NI Civil Rights Assoc. founded

May – US Forces in Vietnam now at 436,000.

Dec 31 – US military strength now at 536,000.

In 1967, only a year and a half after its founding, the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan had split into several factions.

Ernesto “Che” Guevara assassinated 9 October in Bolivia

1968        Derry Civil Right’s march
Ecumenical conferences held regularly in Ireland attended by the ‘four main churches’ from ’68 onwards

1969        Protestant Special Constabulary disbanded
Electorial boundaries redrawn
Housing allocation changed
Anti-discriminatory laws in employment

Canadian Prime Minister Lester Pearson set the UN-sanctioned goal for wealthy countries of contributing 0.7 per cent of their GNP to development assistance. (See 1998)

1970    Arms seized at Dublin Airport – Charlie Haughey implicated but acquitted but has to go to the back bench in Dail.
Irish School of Ecumenics is founded

1971        IRA Offensive
Internment

Scottish Nun Sister Lorna Brockett writes in 1971…
“Even Catholic Theologians and Historians know there is no evidence for infant baptism in scripture. Infants are mentioned but not infant baptism.”

When Chile’s left-wing government of Salvador Allende was elected in 1971 the World Bank effectively stopped all loans. Funding was resumed shortly after the 1973 military coup.

1972        January     Bloody Sunday 13 people shot by the Army in Derry
July        Bloody Friday 9 killed in series of Belfast bombs (130 wounded)
UVF – Political status for POW in Crumlin Rd Prison.
Stormont moves more toward proportional representation – SDLP promised to share in executive power

1973        Northern Ireland and Republic join the EEC

Afghan Daoud received well on returning to power with his coup on July 17, 1973

1974    That same year, Daoud formed a military training program with India, and opened talks with Iran on economic development aid. Daoud also turned to other oil-rich Muslim nations, such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait, for financial assistance.

1975    Unionists want return to majority rule – moderate unionists and sdlp refuse to sign – scraped
Internment ends

South Africa produces 62% of the worlds gold, 25% of the worlds Chromite, 44% of the worlds vanadium, 20% of the worlds manganese,
Nelson Mandela not half way through his sentence

US loose Vietnam War – 58,000 Americans and 2,000,000 Vietnamese die in the Vietnam War – America’s first official War

1976        Vietnam officially reunited

1978        April 27, 1978 Democratic Party of Afghanistan (communist) seize power
Internal rebellion followed
During this period, many Afghans fled to Pakistan and Iran and began organising a resistance movement to the “atheistic” and “infidel” communist regime backed by the Soviets.

1979        The Pope and Contraceptives come to the republic for the first time

Charlie Haughey accepts his first official financial bribe from a businessman

30 would be disciples gather together in the Gemples front living room and set out to become the ICOC although they did not know it at the time…

China invaded Vietnam in respornse to Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia the Sino-Vietnamese War was brief but casualties were high on both sides.

Brezhnev’s Russia invades Afghanistan.

1980        Charlie Haughey meets Mrs. Thatcher to discuss international bodies

United States President Jimmy Carter, identified Pakistan as a “front-line state” in the global struggle against communism. He reversed his stand of a year earlier that aid to Pakistan be terminated as a result of its nuclear program and offered Pakistan a military and economic assistance package if it would act as a conduit for United States and other assistance to the mujahidin.

1981        Hunger strikes
Charlie Haughey looses Taoiseach

Structural Adjustment Programmes
World Bank assault on African Primary Healthcare through the introduction during the 1980s of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs)

1982        Charlie Haughey becomes Taoiseach
Charlie Haughey looses Taoiseach
Irish Government refuses to support Falklands

1983        Ireland says NO to abortion
Buzz words of ‘Equal validity’ appear

1985        Synod of Bishops . Pope JPII
Anglo-Irish Agreement – ‘as long as a majority agree…’

Mikhail Gorbachev assumed leadership of Russia in March 1985.

1986        Ireland says NO to Divorce

(May 1986) In Nigeria about twenty students and bystanders at Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) in Zaria massacred by security forces after staging peaceful protests over impending introduction of SAP. More students killed in protests against SAP and the ABU massacre during the following days at Kaduna Polytechnic, the University of Benin and the University of Lagos.

1987        8 IRA men killed in Lough Gall
IRA bomb kills 11 people in Enniskillen
Charlie Haughey voted in again

Gorbachev announced a Soviet withdrawal without a peace settlement at his Washington meeting with President Reagan on December 10, 1987,
Russia leaves Afghanistan – Civil war continues for three years
Muhahidin backed by US, Government backed by Soviets

1988        3 alleged IRA shot in Gibraltar

With nineteen other martyrs of Vietnam, Theophane Venard was canonized by Pope John Paul II in 1988.

Algeria (October 1988) More than 200 people killed in rioting against the high prices and unemployment in wake of SAPs.

1989        NI Fair Employment Act

(May-June 1989) Dozens of people killed and hundreds arrested in riots and strikes against SAP in Lagos, Benin City and Port Harcourt in Nigeria. Government forced to offer a welfare program called a “SAP Relief Package,”.

1990        Brooke declares that Britain has no ‘strategic or economic interest in NI’
Mary Robinson voted president
Johnsons declare that they do have ‘strategic or economic interest in NI’ and move over to Belfast from Birmingham ICOC

1991 17 disciples declare that they do have ‘strategic or economic interest in NI’ by planting a church in Dublin

During this year supermarket millionaire Ben Dunne of Dunnes popped in to see Charlie Haughey who had just narrowly avoided being kicked out of government. Sensing the T. was depressed he gave him 210000 pounds. Haughey alledgedly replied ‘Thank you big fellow’ – This little conversation did not emerge till the 1997 McCracken Beef Tribunal.

On September 13, the Soviet government, now dominated by Boris Yeltsin, agreed with the United States on a mutual cut-off of military aid to both sides in the Afghan civil war. It was to begin January 1, 1992.

1992        sdlp vote increase
2 bombs in london
rebublicans kill 36 people
loyalists killed 39
UDA banned
Ireland says YES to Maastrist – euro etc
Ireland says YES to the right to travel to England for an Abortion
Ireland says YES to the right to have and supply information about Abortion
But Ireland still says NO to Abortion on sacred Irish Soil
Clinton tells voters he will sort out NI

Dublin ICOC plants Belfast – no big send off in Wembley

The Fall of Kabul, April 1992 to the Mujahadin who prepare to set up the first ever Islamic Republic.

1993    Oct    IRA Bomb on Shankill kills 9 injures 57
Dec     UK joint declaration ‘people of Ireland alone… if that is their wish’

1994    Jan        Gerry Adams given 48 hour visa to go to US
August    IRA ceasefire
October    All Loyalist Paramilitaries join Ceasefire
Finance bill in Republic allows rich foreign Nationals to have a passport for one million pounds – which entitled them to membership in the European Union.
Government enquiry in Republic finds that the Government has been indirectly financing the Iraq economy via the Beef Industry – more on that in 2000

A joint study by UNICEF, the Federal Office of Statistics and the Federal Ministry of Health in Nigeria showed that over the years since structural adjustment policies began, the proportion of infants with low birthweights had increased by 10 per cent and the proportion of malnourished under-fives had increased by 14 per cent. In addition, in six years the percentage of children under five who were moderately to severely malnourished (malnourished to the point of permanent stunting) had increased by 13 per cent to one-third of all children. Even if conditions improve, these children can never recover from their malnutrition.

China: As of 1994 the Peking People’s Daily reported more than 10,000 women and children were abducted and sold each year in Sichaun alone.

1995    Adams go to the White house for tea with Clinton
British Government agree to talk to Adams
Garvahy Rd starts up
Adams says ‘the IRA ’haven’t gone away you know’
Clinton comes to Ireland
Ireland says YES to divorce
Belfast planting goes home

The Taliban springs from obsecurity into existence composed mainly of students, recent graduates of a network of traditional madrasas in southern Afghanistan

Over 133 million children still die each year, roughly the same number as 1980, Even if this represents a smaller percentage of an increased child population. Most of these deaths are still related to poverty and undernutrition.

1995    Cambodia: As of 1995 one survey found minors from 13 to 17 years of age comprised about 31 percent of sex workers. India:

In 1995, 20 percent of Bombay’s brothel population was composed of girls who were younger than 18, at least half of whom were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive.

1996    IRA ends ceasefire and blows up Canary Wharf – demanding an ‘inclusive negotiated settlement’
Manchester bomb
More problems on the Garvahy
2 IRA bombs in NI in British army barracks1997    Tony Blair prime minister
Mo Mowlam – Northern Secretary
Mary Robinson voted President of Rebublic
IRA cause disruption on English motorways
Republicans kill 8 people
Loyalists kill 13
IRA Ceasefire
Sinn Fein admitted to peace talks

1998    April        Good Friday Agreement
Articles 2 and 3 removed from the constitution of the Republic

Canada contributes 0.24 per cent of GNP to development assistance, its worst effort since 1965.

In 1998, Interpol estimated that nearly 80% of the world’s Internet-based child pornography websites originated in Japan.

1999    Restoration Movement refered to as Anabaptists – Dr. Norman Geisler The Reformed and most Anabaptists (except those in the Campbellite theological tradition) reject this in favor of the biblical exhortation that personal faith is the only condition for salvation
Ankerberg Theological Research InstituteAlso in the 1990’s The C.o.I permitted ordination of women

In 1999, the HIPC (Heavily Indebted Poor Countries) countries repaid $1,680 million more than they received in the form of new loans.
For every dollar in grant aid to developing countries, more than 13 came back in debt repayments.2000    Moriarty Tribunal estimated that Charlie Haughey had been in receipt of 8.6 million from leading businessmen from 1979 to 1996In 2000, the Joint Economic Committee of the US Congress found a failure rate of 55-60% for all World Bank-sponsored projects. In Africa, the failure rate reached 73%

’92-2000    749 persons granted refugee status in Ireland roughly 100 per year

2001    The relics of St Therese of Lisieux were taken on a tour of Ireland, North and South. Tens of thousands of people of all ages came out to all night vigils.

A further 3,387 claimed Asylum from foreign countries 118 were accepted
Ireland says YES to the Treaty of Nice to accept Eastern European countries into the EU

2002        911 – 4000 die
US invades Afghanistan

Israel began building a complex security barrier to block suicide bombers invading into Israel from the West Bank. Roadmap for Peace.

2003        US invades Iraq

Israeli Abortionists have legally exterminated over 500,000 innocent unborn Israeli children (on Israeli soil) since the creation of the nation state of Israel – Over 800 per month – A modern day Holocaust. Faces only God can put names to.

‘Operation Predator’ In the first eight months of “Operation Predator” (a 2003 initiative to fight child exploitation, child pornography, and child sex tourism), U.S. law enforcement authorities arrested 25 Americans for child sex tourism offenses.

2004 The IMF, World Bank and the regional development banks (African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, Inter-American Development Bank) hold a wealth of resources, approximately $633 billion in effective capital and $60 billion in reserves and provisions for loan losses, at least 20 times more effective capital than the total debt of all HIPC countries.

McKeans hired as ministers for the Portland church.

December 26, 2004  The Indian Ocean Earthquake occured and was an undersea megathrust earthquake.  The earthquake was alledgedly caused by subduction and triggered a series of devastating tsunami along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing nearly 230,000 people in eleven countries. It was the second largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph.

2005 Launch of Make Poverty History

2006    Over the period of 2006 and 2007, the United States supplied guns, ammunition and training to Palestinian Fatah activists to take on Hamas in the streets of Gaza and the West Bank in a U.S. effort that cost tens of millions of dollars.

2006
The Sold-out Discipling Movement was initiated in Portland, Oregon after the Hilo, Hawaii confrontation. This controversy centered on the McKeans response to Kyle and Joan Bartholomew’s plea to revive the Hilo Church. The International Churches of Christ vehemently opposed the McKeans’ influence. The now (2009) vibrant Hilo Church is led by Evan and Kelly Bartholomew. Evan is Kyle’s brother.

Phoenix ICC planted (5 million/ 110,000 students) – Led by the Sullivans, the Mission Team from Portland joins the Phoenix Remnant Group led by Chris & Sonja Chloupek. The Chloupeks now lead the Phoenix Church.
Chicago ICC planted (10 million/ 200,000 students) – Chris & Theresa Broom

2007    806 million cars and light trucks on the planets roads.

United Nations Office of Drugs and Crimes stated in its Global Report on Trafficking in Persons that 79 percent of all global trafficking is for sexual exploitation, one of the world’s fastest-growing crimes. The report stated that the proportion of minors involved in the various forms of human-trafficking increased from about 15 percent to nearly 22 percent between 2003 and 2007

Los Angeles (CAICC) planted (20 million/ 700,000 students) – Kip & Elena McKean
Santiago ICC palanted (7 million/ 200,000 students) – Raul and Lynda Moreno’s gallant stand produces a new church of sold-out disciples. The Sullivans presently lead the Santiago Church.

2008    Make Poverty History website stops annual updates feature.

Upsidedown21 does not.

Real IRA kill three soldiers in Antrim.

Honolulu ICC planted (1 million/ 65,000 students) – Kyle & Joan Bartholomew
New York City ICC planted (20 million/ 500,000 students) – DJ & Kacie Comisford
Washington DC ICC planted (5 million/ 350,000 students) – Andrew & Patrique Smellie
Five Year Plan initiated – 2008 World Missions Jubilee in Los Angeles

Costa Rica: The capital city of San Jose is home to more than 2,000 child prostitutes. Across the country, children are regularly sold to foreign pedophiles as part of sex-tour “packages”.

Sri Lanka: 100,000 children between the ages of 6 and 14 are kept in brothels and an additional 5,000 children between 10 and 18 are working in tourist areas.

Taiwan: Estimates indicate the number of children in the sex industry to be around 100,000.

According to some reports, Americans comprise an estimated 25% of all sex tourists. In countries such as Cambodia and Costa Rica, the percentage of American sex tourists jumps to 38% and 80%, respectively.

2009     90% of vehicular fuel needs are met by oil. Petroleum also makes up 40% of total energy consumption in the United States. The top three oil producing countries are Saudi Arabia, Russia, and the United States. About 80% of the world’s readily accessible reserves are located in the Middle East, with 62.5% coming from the Saudi Arabia, UAE, Iraq, Qatar and Kuwait.October 2009  Estimated 1.8 million children worldwide trapped in the multi-billion dollar commercial sex trade every year.

“New Hope” led by the Bordieris (2% of plantings’ weekly contribution will support this worldwide charity.)

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